JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Reliability of External Ear Measurements Obtained by Direct, Photocopier Scanning and Photo Anthropometry
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Reliability of External Ear Measurements Obtained by Direct, Photocopier Scanning and Photo Anthropometry
Liu, Bor-Shong; Tseng, Hsien-Yu; Chia, Tung-Chung;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The purpose of this study was to compare the consistency of external ear measurements obtained by electronic digital caliper, photocopier scanning and digital photographic methods. Photogrammetric measurements were made after image editing software was used to optimize the brightness, contrast, size and image clarity. The CorelDRAW dimension tool was used to create a dimension line that measured the vertical and horizontal length between any two landmarks. Results of repeated measures analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in length and width of the pinna between the three methods. The reliability of the three measurement techniques showed a high degree of consistency. Further study and efforts could be extended to measurement hands, foots and facial dimensions by present techniques.
 Keywords
Anthropometry;Ear Dimensions;Reliability;Photogrammetry;Intra-Class Correlation Coefficient;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Anthropometry and classification of auricular concha for the ergonomic design of earphones, Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries, 2017, 10908471  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Alexander, M. and Laubach, L. (1968), Anthropometry of the human ear, Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, Wright Patterson, Ohio.

2.
Barut, C. and Aktunc, E. (2006), Anthropometric measurements of the external ear in a group of Turkish primary school students, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 30, 255-259. crossref(new window)

3.
Bhatia, G., Vannier, M. W., Smith, K. E., Commean, P. K., Riolo, J., and Young, V. L. (1994), Quantification of facial surface change using a structured light scanner. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 94, 768-774. crossref(new window)

4.
Bozkir, M. G., Karakas, P., Yavuz, M., and Dere, F. (2006), Morphometry of the external ear in our adult population, Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 30, 81-85. crossref(new window)

5.
Coward, T. J., Watson, R. M., and Scott, B. J. J. (1997), Laser scanning for the identification of repeatable landmarks of the ears and face, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 50, 308-314. crossref(new window)

6.
Farkas, L. G. (1981), Anthropometry of the head and face in medicine, New York: Elservier.

7.
Farkas, L. G., Posnick, J. C., and Hreczko, T. M. (1992), Anthropometric growth study of the ear, Cleft Palate-craiofacial Journal, 29, 324-329. crossref(new window)

8.
Feathers, D. J., Paquet, V. L., and Drury, C. G. (2004), Measurement consistency and three-dimensional electromechanical anthropometry, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 33, 181-190. crossref(new window)

9.
Gavan, J. A. (1950), The consistency of anthropometric measurements, American Journal of Physical Anthropometry, 8, 417-426. crossref(new window)

10.
Hinkle, D. E., Wiersma, W., and Jurs, S. G. (2003), Applied statistics for the behavioral sciences, 5th Edition, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.

11.
Hsu, S. H., Peng Y., and Wu, S. P. (2005), Human Factors Engineering, 3rd Edition, Taichung: Tsang Hai Book Publishing.

12.
Inoue, K., Ichikawa, R., Nagashima, M., and Kodama, G. (1995), Sex differences in the shapes of several parts of the young Japanese face, Applied Human Science, 14, 191.

13.
Jung, H. S. and Jung, H. S. (2003), Surveying the dimensions and characteristics of Korean ears for the ergonomic design of ear-related products, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 31, 361-373. crossref(new window)

14.
Klipstein-grobusch, K., Georg, T., and Boeing, H. (1997), Interviewer variability in anthropometric measurements and estimates of body composition, International Journal of Epidemiology, 26, S174-S180. crossref(new window)

15.
Lexwell, J. E. and Downham, D. Y. (2005), How to assess the reliability of measurements in rehabilitation, American of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 719-723. crossref(new window)

16.
Lindsey, J. K. (1993), Models for Repeated Measurements, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

17.
Liu, B. S. (2008), Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products, Applied Ergonomics, 39, 115-121. crossref(new window)

18.
McGraw, K. O. and Wong, S. P. (1996), Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients, Psychological Methods, 1, 30-46. crossref(new window)

19.
Moss, J. P., Linney, A. D., Grindrod, S. R., and Mosse, C. A. (1989), A laser scanning system for the measurement of facial morphology, Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 10, 179-190. crossref(new window)

20.
Nechala, P., Mahoney, J., and Farkas, L. G. (1999), Digital two-dimensional photogrammetry: A comparison of three techniques of obtaining digital photographs, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 103, 1819-1825. crossref(new window)

21.
Norusis, M. (2004), SPSS 13.0 Statistical Procedures Companion, Upper Saddle-River: Prentice Hall.

22.
Portney, L. G. and Watkins, M. P. (1993), Foundations of clinical research: applications to practice, Stamford: Appleton and Lange.

23.
Wickens, C. D., Lee, J. D., Liu, Y., and Gordon-Becker, S. E. (2004), An introduction to human factors engineering, 2nd Edition, Upper Saddle-River: Pearson Education.