Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of a Standing Body Position during College Students' Exam: Implications on Cognitive Test Performance
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of a Standing Body Position during College Students' Exam: Implications on Cognitive Test Performance
Isip, Marc Immanuel G.;
  PDF(new window)
This study stems from the work of Lehman et al. (Ergonomics, 2001) which concluded that standing yields better work performance, and from the growing health trend of recommending the reduction of the amount of time spent in sitting (Owen et al., Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 2010). Lajoie et al. (Experimental Brain Research, 1993) provided an initial significant contribution to a theory that standing requires a person to control balance, equating to demand higher productive output from the cognitive system than when a person is sitting. An assumption was formulated that standing position during class is feasible and can be adopted on the belief that it might contribute positive results to students' performance. The purpose of this study is to identify whether a body position during exams tested along with exposure durations has a significant effect on college students' performance. Mathematical analysis and reading comprehension exam was used to measure the cognitive performance of the students. Two factors, position and duration, were tested for significance with two levels each subjected to six replicates. Twenty-four students from the College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology, University of the Philippines Los Baos were randomly selected. The experiment showed that the body position during exams is a significant factor for the Math exam, but insignificant for the Reading Comprehension exam.
Ergonomics;Design of Experiments;Sitting and Standing Position;
 Cited by
A randomised control trial of the cognitive effects of working in a seated as opposed to a standing position in office workers, Ergonomics, 2016, 59, 6, 737  crossref(new windwow)
Adams, M. A. and Hutton, W. C. (1983), The effect of posture on the fluid content of lumbar intervertebral discs, Spine, 8(6), 665-671. crossref(new window)

Andersson, G. B. J., Murphy, R. W., Ortengren, R., and Nachemson, A. L. (1979), The influence of backrest inclination and lumbar support on lumbar lordosis, Spine, 4(1), 52-58. crossref(new window)

Andersson, G., Hagman, J., Talianzadeh, R., Svedberg, A., and Larsen, H. C. (2002), Effect of cognitive load on postural control, Brain Research Bulletin, 58(1), 135-139. crossref(new window)

Bourne, L. E. and Yaroush, R. A. (2003), Stress and cognition:a cognitive psychological perspective, NASA grant no. NAG2-1561, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

Branton, P. (1969), Behaviour, body mechanics and discomfort, Ergonomics, 12(2), 316-327. crossref(new window)

Cohen, A. L. (1997), Elements of ergonomics programs: a primer based on workplace evaluations of musculoskeletal disorders, US Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, OH.

Corbeil, P., Blouin, J. S., Begin, F., Nougier, V., and Teasdale, N. (2003), Perturbation of the postural control system induced by muscular fatigue, Gait and Posture, 18(2), 92-100. crossref(new window)

Dault, M. C., Frank, J. S., and Allard, F. (2001), Influence of a visuo-spatial, verbal and central executive working memory task on postural control, Gait and Posture, 14(2), 110-116. crossref(new window)

Gardner, H. (1985), Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences, Basic Books, New York, NY.

Gardner, H. (2003), Multiple intelligences after twenty years, Presented at American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.

Harrison, D. D., Harrison, S. O., Croft, A. C., Harrison, D. E., and Troyanovich, S. J. (1999), Sitting biomechanics part I: review of the literature, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 22(9), 594-609. crossref(new window)

Healy, G. N., Wijndaele, K., Dunstan, D. W., Shaw, J. E., Salmon, J., Zimmet, P. Z., and Owen, N. (2008), Objectively measured sedentary time, physical activity, and metabolic risk the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study (AusDiab), Diabetes Care, 31(2), 369-371. crossref(new window)

Hu, F. B., Leitzmann, M. F., Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., and Rimm, E. B. (2001), Physical activity and television watching in relation to risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in men, Archives of Internal Medicine, 161(12), 1542-1548. crossref(new window)

Hu, F. B., Li, T. Y., Colditz, G. A., Willett, W. C., and Manson, J. E. (2003), Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women, JAMA, 289 (14), 1785-1791. crossref(new window)

Huang, T. T. K., Harris, K. J., Lee, R. E., Nazir, N., Born, W., and Kaur, H. (2003), Assessing overweight, obesity, diet, and physical activity in college students, Journal of American College Health, 52(2), 83-86. crossref(new window)

Keating, X. D., Guan, J., Pinero, J. C., and Bridges, D. M. (2005), A meta-analysis of college students' physical activity behaviors, Journal of American College Health, 54(2), 116-126. crossref(new window)

Kroemer, K. H. and Robinette, J. C. (1969), Ergonomics in the design of office furniture, IMS Industrial Medicine and Surgery, 38(4), 115-125.

Kroemer, K., Kroemer, H. B., and Kroemer-Elbert, K. E.(2001), Ergonomics: How to Design for Ease and Efficiency (2nd ed.), Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Lajoie, Y., Teasdale, N., Bard, C., and Fleury, M. (1993), Attentional demands for static and dynamic equilibrium, Experimental Brain Research, 97(1), 139-144.

Lehman, K. R., Psihogios, J. P., and Meulenbroek, R. G. J. (2001), Effects of sitting versus standing and scanner type on cashiers, Ergonomics, 44(7), 719-738. crossref(new window)

Leslie, E., Owen, N., Salmon, J., Bauman, A., Sallis, J. F., and Lo, S. K. (1999), Insufficiently active Australian college students: perceived personal, social, and environmental influences, Preventive Medicine, 28(1), 20-27. crossref(new window)

Lin, R. T. and Chan, C. C. (2007), Effectiveness of workstation design on reducing musculoskeletal risk factors and symptoms among semiconductor fabrication room workers, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 37(1), 35-42. crossref(new window)

Lowry, R., Galuska, D. A., Fulton, J. E., Wechsler, H., Kann, L., and Collins, J. L. (2000), Physical activity, food choice, and weight management goals and practices among US college students, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18(1), 18-27.

Magora, A. (1972), Investigation of the relation between low back pain and occupation: 3. Physical requirements:sitting, standing and weight lifting, IMS Industrial Medicine and Surgery, 41(12), 5-9.

Maki, B. E. and McIlroy, W. E. (1996), Influence of arousal and attention on the control of postural sway, Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium and Orientation, 6(1), 53-59. crossref(new window)

Maylor, E. A., Allison, S., and Wing, A. M. (2001), Effects of spatial and nonspatial cognitive activity on postural stability, British Journal of Psychology, 92(2), 319-338. crossref(new window)

Morris, M., Iansek, R., Smithson, F., and Huxham, F. (2000), Postural instability in Parkinson's disease:a comparison with and without a concurrent task, Gait and Posture, 12(3), 205-216. crossref(new window)

Owen, N., Healy, G. N., Matthews, C. E., and Dunstan, D. W. (2010), Too much sitting: the populationhealth science of sedentary behavior, Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 38(3), 105-113. crossref(new window)

Pellecchia, G. L. (2003), Postural sway increases with attentional demands of concurrent cognitive task, Gait and Posture, 18(1), 29-34. crossref(new window)

Rankin, J. K., Woollacott, M. H., Shumway-Cook, A., and Brown, L. A. (2000), Cognitive influence on postural stability a neuromuscular analysis in young and older adults, Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(3), M112-M119. crossref(new window)

Redfern, M. S., Jennings, J. R., Martin, C., and Furman, J. M. (2001), Attention influences sensory integration for postural control in older adults, Gait and Posture, 14(3), 211-216. crossref(new window)

Shumway-Cook, A. and Woollacott, M. (2000), Attentional demands and postural control: the effect of sensory context, Journals of Gerontology-Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 55(1), M10-M16. crossref(new window)

Shvartz, E., Gaume, J. G., White, R. T., Reibold, R. C., and Glassford, E. J. (1980), Effect of the circutone seat on hemodynamic, subjective and thermal responses during prolonged sitting, Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 24(1), 639-642.

Teasdale, N. and Simoneau, M. (2001), Attentional demands for postural control: the effects of aging and sensory reintegration, Gait and Posture, 14(3), 203-210. crossref(new window)

Vuillerme, N., Forestier, N., and Nougier, V. (2002), Attentional demands and postural sway: the effect of the calf muscles fatigue, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 34(12), 1907-1912. crossref(new window)

Vuillerme, N., Nougier, V., and Teasdale, N. (2000), Effects of a reaction time task on postural control in humans, Neuroscience Letters, 291(2), 77-80. crossref(new window)

Williams, M. M., Hawley, J. A., Mckenzie, R. A., and Van Wijmen, P. M. (1991), A comparison of the effects of two sitting postures on back and referred pain, Spine, 16(10), 1185-1191. crossref(new window)

Woollacott, M. and Shumway-Cook, A. (2002), Attention and the control of posture and gait: a review of an emerging area of research, Gait and Posture, 16 (1), 1-14.

Yaggie, J. A. and McGregor, S. J. (2002), Effects of isokinetic ankle fatigue on the maintenance of balance and postural limits, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83(2), 224-228. crossref(new window)