Korea National Statistical Office(KNSO). The autumn of future population. Retrived from http;//www.nao.fo.kr, January 12. 2011.
C. E. Ferrans, M. J. Powers, "Psychometric assessment of the quality of life index". Research in Nursing and Health, Vol. 15, pp. 29-38, 1992. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770150106
C. E. Ferrans, J. J. Zerwic, J. E. Wibur, J. L. Larson,. "Conceptual model of health-related quality of life", Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Vol.37, pp.336-342, 2005.
E. Suh, E.Diener, F. Fujita, "Events and subjective well-being : Only recent events matter", Journal of Personality and social Psychology pending revisions. 1995.
D. Cella, C. J. Nowinski, "Measuring quality of life in chronic illness : the functional assessment of chronic illness therapy measurement system". Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol.83, pp.10-17, 2002.
L. Thrnstam, "Dimensions of loneliness, Aging", Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 3, pp.259-265. 1990.
P. G. Reed, "Toward a nursing theory of selftranscendence: deductive reformation using developmental theory". Advanced in Nursing Science, Vol.13, No.4, pp.64-77, 1991.
P. G. Reed, "Demystifying self-transcendense for mental health nursing practice and research". Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, Vol.23, No. 5, pp.397-400, 2009.
D. Baker, "Relationship of self-transcendence and death anxiety to older adult's participation in health promotion behavior". Journal of Nursing Research, Vol.9, No.2, pp.1-10, 2009
K. B. Bean, K Wagner, "self-transcendence, illness distress, and quality of life among liver transplant recipients". The Journal of theory Construction and Testing, Vol.10 No.2, pp.47-53, 2005.
J. Neill, "Transcendence and transformation in the life patterns of women living with rheumatoid arthritis". Advances in Nursing Science, 'Vol.24, pp. 27-47. 2002.
B. Nygren, L. Alex., E. Jonsen, Y. Gustafson, A. Norberg, B. Lundman, "Resilence, sense of coherence, purpose in life and self-transcendence in relation to perceived physical and mental health among the oldest old". Aging & Mental Health, Vol. 9, No.4, pp.354-362, 2005.
J. C. Thomas, M. Burton, M. T. Quinn Griffin, J. J. Fitzpatrick, "Self-transcendence, spiritual well-being and spiritual practice of women with breast cancer". Journal of Holistic Care, Vol. 28, pp.115-122, 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0898010109358766
E, J. Kim, Y. Kim, "Predictors of successful aging in korean women based on successful aging theory(SAT)", Korean Journal Women Health Nursing, Vol.17, No.4, pp.378-387, 2011.
H. K. Kim, "Gender difference of the influencing factors on successful agning among rural community dwelling korean elders". Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, Vol. 32, No.3, pp.819-834, 2012.
S. Y, Kim, "The lived experience of self-transcendence of elders". Korean Journal of Adult Nursing. Vol. 12, No.4, pp.595-605, 2000.
K. S. Rock, "Research on social support, ; loneliness and social isolation towards an integrated review of personality". Social psychology, Vol. 5, pp.239-264. 1984.
C. Paul, S. Ayis, S. Ebrahim, "Psychological distress, loneliness and disability in old age". Psychol Health Med, Vol. 11, pp.221-232. 2006.
S. Y. Kim, J. I. Lee, "Self-transcendence, spiritual well-being, and death anxiety of the elderly". Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing, Vol. 27, No.3, pp.480-489. 2013.
D. Russell, L. A. Peplau, C. E. Cutrona, "The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: concurrent and discriminant validity evidence". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 39, No.3, pp.472-480. 1980.
K. H. Kim, J. H. Kim, "Korea UCLA lonelines Scale". Journal of student Guidance, Vol. 16, pp.13-30. 1989.
S. S. Choi, H.S Park, "A study of factors affecting on the loneliness of the elderly ; focusing on the urban-rural complex area". Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, Vol.29, No.4, pp.1277-1293. 2009.
J. D., Kwon, T. Um, Y. Kim, "A study on factors affecting suicide risk among seniors who live alone". Health and Social Welfare Review, Vol.32, No.1, pp.89-114. 2012.
G. Low, A. E. Molzahn, M. Kalfoss, "Quality of life of older adults in Canada and Norway". Western Journal of Nursing Research, Vol.30, pp.458-476, 2008. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193945907305675
D. J. Jang, Y. T Kim. "A relationship bet ween spiritual transcendence and psychological well-being among christian young adult in korea". Korean Journal of Christian Counselling, Vol.11, pp. 165-186, 2008.
D. D. Coward, "Self-transcendence and correlates in a healthy population". Nursing research, Vol. 45, No.2, pp.116-121. 1996.
J. Drennan, M. Treacy, M. Butler. A. Byme,, G. Fealy, K. Frazer, K. Irving, "The experience of social and emotional loneliness among older people in Ireland". Ageing & Society, Vol.28, pp.1113-1132, 2008.
S. E. Kramer, T. S. Kapteyn, D. J. Kuik, D. J. H. Deeg, "The association of hearing impairment and chronic diseases with psychosocial health status in older age". Journal of Aging and Health, Vol.14, pp.122-137, 2002. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089826430201400107
C. Paul, O. Ribeiro, "Predicting in old people living in community". Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, Vol.19, pp.53-60. 2009.
P. Thoits, "Explaining distributions of psychological vulnerability lack of social support in face of stress". Social Force, Vol. 63, pp.453-481. 1984.
E. S. Park, S.J. Kim, S.I. Kim, Y. J. Chun, P. S. Lee, H.J. Kim, K. S. Han, "A structural model for quality of life in the elderly". Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, Vol. 18, No.3, pp.37-61. 1998.
H. S. Lee, D. G. Kim, H. J. Go, H. M. Gu, U. J. Kwon, J. H. Kim, "The standardization of Geriatric quality of life scale". The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol.22, No. 4, pp.859-881. 2003.
T. Kim, D. Kim, M. Kim, Y. Lee, A. Kim, "A study on improvement of the quality of life for the aged". Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, Vol.18, No.1, 150-169, 1998.
K. Lee, H. Lee, "Determinants of the Quality of life in three elderly cohorts". Journal of Welfare for the aged, Vol. 41, pp.159-182. 2008.
D. D. Coward, "Facilitation of self-transcendence in a breast cancer support group II". Oncology Nursing Forum, Vol.30, pp.291-300. 2003.
J. M. Donaldson, R. Watson, "Loneliness in elderly people : an important area for nursing research". Journal of Advanced Nursing, Vol. 24, pp.952-959, 1996.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.1996.tb02931.x
C-h. Wu, G. Yao, "Psychometric analysis of the short-form UCLA loneliness scale (ULS-8) in Taiwanese undergraduate students". Personality and Individual Difference, Vol. 44, pp.1762-1771, 2008. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.02.003
S. M. Han, "Social leisure activity and life satisfaction of the elderly-focused on the leisure satisfaction and loneliness", Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp.157-182. 2011.
H. K. Kim, H. J. Lee, S. M. Park, "Factors Influencing Quality of Life in Elderly Women Living Alone". Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, Vol.30, No.2, pp. 279-292. 2010.