W. Herzog, T. R. Leonard, "The history dependence of force production in mammalian skeletal muscle following stretch-shortening and shortening-stretch cycles", Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 33, pp. 531-542, 2000. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00221-3
D. E. Rassier, W. Herzog, "Effects of shortening on stretch-induced force enhancement in single skeletal muscle fibers", Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 37, pp. 1305-1312, 2004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2003.12.033
G. A. Lichtwark, A. M. Wilson, "Interactions between the human gastrocnemius muscle and the Achilles tendon during incline, level and decline locomotion", Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 209, No. 21, pp. 4379-4388, 2006. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.02434
A. Scott, P. Scott, "A Comparison of Prostretch(R) Versus Incline Board Stretching on Active Ankle Dorsiflexion Range of Motion", UW-L Journal of Undergraduate Research VIII, Vol. 1 pp. 1-6, 2005.
J. M. Gracies, "Pathophysiology of impairment in patients with spasticity and use of stretch as a treatment of spastic hypertonia", Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, Vol. 12, pp. 747-768, 2001.
P. A. Mortenson, J. J. Eng, "The use of casts in the management of joint mobility and hypertonia following brain injury in adults: a systematic review", Physical Therapy, Vol. 83, pp. 648-658, 2003.
M. Stokes, "Physical management of neurological rehabilitation", 2nd ed, London: Elsevier Mosby, 2004.
M. Fujii, D. Suzuki, E. Uchiyama, T. Muraki, A. Teramoto, M Aoki, S. Miyamoto, "Does distal tibiofibular joint mobilization decrease limitation of ankle dorsiflexion?", Manual Therapy, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 117-121, 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2009.08.008
N. N. Mahieu, P. McNair, M. De Muynck, V. Stevens, I. Blanckaert, N. Smits, E. Witvrouw, "Effect of static and ballistic stretching on the muscle-tendon tissue properties", Medicine and science in sports and exercise, Vol. 39, pp. 494-501, 2007. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000247004.40212.f7
M. Nakamura, T. Ikezoe, Y. Takeno, N. Ichihashi, "Effects of a 4-week static stretch training program on passive stiffness of human gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in vivo", European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 112, No. 7, pp. 2749-2755, 2012. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2250-3
P. W. Hodges, L. H. Pengel, R. D. Herbert, S. C. Gandevia, "Measurement of muscle contraction with ultrasound imaging", Muscle & Nerve, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 682-692, 2003. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.10375
G. Q. Zhou, P. Chan, Y. P. Zheng, "Automatic measurement of pennation angle and fascicle length of gastrocnemius muscles using real-time ultrasound imaging", Ultrasonics, Vol. 57, pp. 72-83, 2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2014.10.020
T. Fukunaga, Y. Kawakami, K. Kubo, H. Kanehisa, "Muscle and tendon interaction during human movements", Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 106-110, 2002. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003677-200207000-00003
Y. Kawakami, H. Kanehisa, T. Fukunaga, "The relationship between passive ankle plantar flexion joint torque and gastrocnemius muscle and achilles tendon stiffness: implications for flexibility", Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 269-276, 2008. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2008.2632
W. Herzog, R. Schachar, T. R. Leonard, "Characterization of the passive component of force enhancement following active stretching of skeletal muscle", Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol. 206, No. 20, pp. 3635-3643, 2003. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.00645
R. Mehta, B. I. Prilutsky, "Task-dependent inhibition of slow-twitch soleus and excitation of fast-twitch gastrocnemius do not require high movement speed and velocity-dependent sensory feedback", Frontiers in Physiology, Vol. 5, pp. 410, 2014. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2014.00410
S. J. Lee, B. S. Kwon, C. H. Park, "The effect of passive stretching on the spasticity of ankle plantar flexor muscles", Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol. 25, No. 6, pp. 987-992, 2001.
M. Johanson, J. Baer, H. Hovermale, P. "Phouthavong, Subtalar joint position during gastrocnemius stretching and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion", Journal of Athletic Training, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 172-178, 2008. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-43.2.172
A. Fukutani, T. Kurihara, "Comparison of the muscle fascicle length between resistance-trained and untrained individuals: cross-sectional observation", springerplus, Vol. 4, pp. 341, 2015.
J. Y. Yu, J. G. Jeong, B. H. Lee, "Evaluation of muscle damage using ultrasound imaging", Journal of Physical Therapy Science, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 531-534, 2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1589/jpts.27.531
M. V. Narici, C. N. Maganaris, N. D. Reeves, P. Capodaglio, "Effect of aging on human muscle architecture", Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 95, No. 6, pp. 2229-2234, 2003. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00433.2003
N. D. Reeves, M. V. Narici, "Behavior of human muscle fascicles during shortening and lengthening contractions in vivo", Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 95, No. 3, pp. 1090-1096, 2003. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01046.2002
R. W. Selles, X. Li, F. Lin, S. G. Chung, E. J. Roth, L. Q. Zhang, "Feedback-controlled and programmed stretching of the ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors in stroke: effects of a 4-week intervention program", Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vol. 86, pp. 2330-2336, 2005. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2005.07.305
C. L. Wu, M. H. Huang, C. L. Lee, C. W. Liu, L. J. Lin, C. H. Chen, "Effect on spasticity after performance of dynamic repeated passive ankle joint motion exercise in chronic stroke patients", Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, Vol. 22, pp. 610-617, 2006. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1607-551X(09)70361-4
H. S. Kwaka, K. B. Lee, Y. M. Hana, "Ruptures of the medial head of the gastrocnemius tennis leg", Clinical Imaging, Vol. 30, pp. 48-53, 2006. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2005.07.004
N. Malliaropoulos, S. Papalexandris, A. Papalada, E. Papacostas, "The role of stretching in rehabilitation of hamstring injuries: 80 athletes follow-up", Medicine and science in sports and exercise, Vol. 36, No. 5, pp. 756- 759, 2004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000126393.20025.5E
G. Reurink, G. J. Goudswaard, J. L. Tol, J. A. Verhaar, A. Weir, M. H. Moen, "Therapeutic interventions for acute hamstring injuries: a systematic review", British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 46, pp. 103-109, 2012. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090447
K. H. Tsai, C. Y. Yeh, H. Y. Chang, J. J. Chen, "Effects of a single session of prolonged muscle stretch on spastic muscle of stroke patients", Proceedings of the National Science Council Republic of China, Vol. 25, pp. 76-81, 2001.
T. Pin, P. Dyke, M. Chan, "The effectiveness of passive stretching in children with cerebral palsy", Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, Vol. 48, pp. 855-862, 2006. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0012162206001836
L. Q. Zhang, S. G. Chung, Z. Bai, D. Xu, E. M. van Rey, M. W. Rogers, "Intelligent stretching of ankle joints with contracture/spasticity", Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering, Vol. 10, pp. 149-157, 2002. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2002.802857
R. S. Chow, M. K. Medri, D. C. Martin, R. N. Leekam, A. M. Agur, N. H. McKee, "Sonographic studies of human soleus and gastrocnemius muscle architecture: gender variability", European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 82, No. 3, pp. 236-244, 2000. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s004210050677
K. Manal, D. P. Roberts, T. S. Buchanan, "Optimal pennation angle of the primary ankle plantar and dorsiflexors: variations with sex, contraction intensity, and limb," Journal of Applied Biomechanics. Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 255-263, 2006.