Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Development of Workplace Bullying in Nursing-Consequence Inventory (WPBN-CI)
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Development of Workplace Bullying in Nursing-Consequence Inventory (WPBN-CI)
Lee, Younju;
  PDF(new window)
This study developed an instrument to assess the effects of the bullying of nurses in the workplace and evaluated the developed instrument. A literature review and a field study were conducted to identify the concepts related to the bullying of nurses in the workplace. These attributes served as building blocks to produce a 28-item WPBN-CI. The content validity was used to determine the content and face validities, and the number of instrument items was reduced to 14. The final WPBN-CI instrument was evaluated using the SPSS 18.0 program with the data collected from October 21-28, 2013 from 458 nurses from general hospitals in the metropolitan area. The WPBN-CI consisted of 13 items covering three distinct factors (physical and psychological withdrawal, poor quality of patient care, and increasing distrust), with a total variance of 62.9%. The convergent and determinant validities for the WPBN-CI were 100% and 89.7%, respectively. The known-groups validity was proven through the mean difference in the level of depression. The satisfied criterion validity for the WPBN-CI was more than 0.70. The reliability of the WPBN-CI was demonstrated by its Cronbach`s of 0.90. The WPBN-CI will identify in advance the results due to the bullying of nurses in the workplace and will help to find solutions to the problem and ensure program effectiveness.
Consequences;Inventory;Nurse;Workplace bullying;
 Cited by
G. J. Park, Y. N. Kim, "Factors influencing organizational commitment among hospital nurses". The Journal of Korean Nursing Administration Academic Society, 16(3), pp. 250-258, 2010. DOI: crossref(new window)

Hospital Nurses Association. 2012 Actual condition survery report of nurse staffing, 2013. Available From: (accessed Dec., 5, 2015)

Nursing Solutions Inc. National healthcare RN retention report, 2015. Available From: tention-institute/NationalHealthcareRNRetentionReport2015.pdf. (accessed Dec., 5, 2015)

Health Education England(HEE). Literature review on nurses leaving the NHS, 2014. Available From: rowing-nursing-numbers-Literature-Review-Final.pdf (accessed Dec., 5, 2015)

Y. S. Seo, Y. C. Kim, "A study on factors affecting the turnover intention and job involvement of nurses". Korean Business Education Review, 12, pp. 151-172. 2007.

Wikipedia. Bullying. Available From: AD%ED%9E%98 (accessed Dec., 5, 2015)

S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, C. L. Cooper, The concept of bullying and harassment at work: The European tradition. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.). Bullying and harassment in the workplace: Development in theory, research, and practice (2nd ed.). p.3-39. CRC Press. 2010. DOI: crossref(new window)

Y. J. Lee, K. Bernstein, M. Lee, K. M. Nokes, "Bullying in nursing workplace: Applying evidence using a conceptual framework". Nursing Economic$. 32(5), pp. 255-267. 2014.

J. A. Vessey, R. Demarco, R. Difazio, "Bullying harassment and horizontal violence in the nursing workplace: The state of the science". Annual Review of Nursing Research, 28(1), pp. 133-157. 2010. DOI: crossref(new window)

M. Hutchinson, D. Jackson, L. Wilkes, M. Vickers, "A new model of bullying in the nursing workplace: Organizational characteristics as critical antecedents". Advances in Nursing Science, 31(2), pp. E60-E71. 2008. DOI: crossref(new window)

D. Yildirim, "Bullying among nurses and its effects". International Nursing Review, 56(4), pp. 504-511. 2009. DOI: crossref(new window)

B. G. McKenna, N. A. Smith, S. J. Poole, J. H. Coverdale, "Horizontal violence: Experiences of registered nurses in their first year of practice". Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42(1), pp. 90-96. 2003. DOI: crossref(new window)

Y. Lee, "The conceptual development and development of new instruments to measure bullying in nursing workplace". Inha University, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 2014.

M. R. Lynn, "Determination and qualification of content validity". Nursing Research, 35, pp. 382-385. 1986. DOI:

B. G. Tabachnick, L. S. Fidell, Using multivariate statistic(3rd ed.). Harper Collins. 1996.

A. T. Beck, Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. Harper & Row Publishers Inc. 1967.

H. M., Hahn, T. H., Yum, Y. W. Shin, K. H. Kim, D. J. Yoon, K. J. Chung, "A Standardization Study of Beck Depression Inventory in Korea". Journal of the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, 25(3), pp. 487-500. 1986.

S. S. Han, S. C. Lee, SPSS Nursing.Health Statistical Analysis. Hyunmoonsa. 2006.

J. E. Bartlett, M. E. Bartlett, "Workplace bullying: An integrative literature review". Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(1), pp. 69-84. 2011. DOI: crossref(new window)

C. F. Rocker, "Addressing nurse-to-nurse bullying to promote nurse retention". Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13(3). 2008. Retrieved from

H. Cho, There is a reason why hospitals are well. Haneon Publisher. 2006.

K. H., Lee, S. J. Shin, "Validity of instrument development research in Korean nursing research". Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 43(6), pp. 697-703. 2013. DOI: crossref(new window)

H. Ozturk, S. Sokmen, F. Yilmaz, D. Cilingir, "Measuring mobbing experiences of academic nurses: Development of a mobbing scale". Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 22(9), pp. 435-442. 2008. DOI:

E. A. Jo, J. Y. Kang, "Influence of workplace bullying and resilience on organizational socialization in new graduate nurses". The Journal of Muscle and Joint Health, 22(2), pp. 78-86. 2015. DOI: crossref(new window)

M. R. Han, J. A. Gu, I. Y. Yoo, "Influence of workplace bullying and leader-member exchange on turnover intention among nurses". The Journal of Korean Nursing Administration Academic Society, 20(4), pp. 383-393. 2014. DOI: crossref(new window)