Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Risk factors for the development of oral bacteria in workers according to oral environment
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Risk factors for the development of oral bacteria in workers according to oral environment
Hong, Min-Hee;
  PDF(new window)
This research examined the oral environmental factors to identify the risk factors for oral bacteria detection. This study comprised of 60 office workers aged between 20 and 65 years, and was performed from January 15 to February 28, 2015. The study variables measured were the stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rates, salivary buffering, saliva pH, dry mouth at the dorsum of the tongue and the sublingual region, halitosis, and the degree of tongue-coating as oral environmental factors. To identify the presence of oral bacteria, pathogens were detected by extracting the gDNA of the resting salivary flow rate. The risk of S.mutans detection was 15 times higher with smokers, 1.3~1.6 times higher when the resting or stimulated salivary flow rate was reduced by 1 mm. The risk of P.intermedia detection was 13 times higher in smokers, 4.3 times higher as the severity of oral dryness was lowered, and 4 times higher for adults with a tongue coating than those without. In addition, the risk of detecting TM7 was 5.5 times higher as sublingual dryness was decreased by 1mm. The oral bacterial count will be reduced considerably by smoking cessation education and habits that facilitate a salivary flow rate. Furthermore, adults with good and well-managed dental hygiene are anticipated to have less oral bacteria and fewer dental diseases.
TM7 phylum;Oral environment;P.Intermedia;S.mutans;
 Cited by
M. D. Han, Y. K. Kim, Oral microbiology. Seoul: Komoonsa. 4nd. p.257:267:268:300:342. 2010.

L. B. Parahitiyawa, C. Scully, W. K. Leung, L. J. Jin, L. Samaranayake, "Exploring the oral bacterial flora", Oral Dis, 16(2), pp.136-45, 2010. DOI: crossref(new window)

J. H. Badger, P. C. Ng, J. C. Venter, "The human genome, microbiomes, and disease", Metagenomics of the human body, 17(11), pp.1-14. 2011. DOI:

S. Filoche, L. Wong, C. H. Sissons, "Oral biofilms: emerging concepts in microbial ecology", J Dent Res, 89(1), pp.8-18, 2010. DOI: crossref(new window)

P. C. Baehni, B. Guggenheim, "Potential of diagnostic microbiology for treatment and prognosis of dental caries and periodontal diseases", Oral Biol Med, 7(3), pp.259-277, 1996. DOI: crossref(new window)

K. H. Kang, Y. K. Kim, H. S. Lee, J. Ingnyol, "Analysis of gene expression in response to acid stress of Streptococcus mutans isolated from a Korean child", J Korea Academia-Industrial, 10(10), pp.2990-2996, 2009. DOI: crossref(new window)

M. M. Brinig, P. W. Lepp, C. C. Ouverney, G. C. Armitage, D. A. Relman. "Prevalence of bacteria of division TM7 in human subgingival plaque and their association with disease", Appl. Environ. Microbiol, 69(3), pp.1687-1694, 2003. DOI: crossref(new window)

P. Kumar, A. Griffen, J. Barton, B. Paster, M. Moeschberger, E. Leys, "New bacterial species associated with chronic periodontitis", J Dent Res, 82(5), pp.338-344, 2003. DOI: crossref(new window)

T. Kuehbacher, A. Rehman, P. Lepage, S. Hellmig, U. R. Folsch, S. Schreiber, S. J. Ott "Intestinal TM7 bacterial phylogenies in active inflammatory bowel disease", J Med Microbiol, 57(12), pp.1569-1576, 2008. DOI: crossref(new window)

G. Roeselers, A. M. Guss, I. L. G. Newton, V. Klepac-Ceraj, S. Lory, C. M. Cavanaugh. "Phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of bacteria associated with cystic fibrosis", ISMEJ, 1(5), pp.20-29, 2010. DOI:

D. N .Fredricks, T. L. Fiedler, K. K. Thomas, B. B. Oakley, J. M. Marrazzo.. "Targeted PCR for detection of vaginal bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis". J Clin Microbiol, 45(10), pp.3270-3276, 2007. DOI: crossref(new window)

M. Feres, S. C. Cortelli, L. C. Figueiredo. "Microbiological basis for periodontal therapy: Bases microbiologicas para a terapia periodontal", J Appl. Oral Sci, 12(4), pp.256-66, 2004. DOI:

J. H. Lee. Dental biofilm, Biochem Mol Biol News (webzine) 6: 1-5, 2008.

H. K. Son, J. Y. Kim, J. R. Park, J. Kim. "The Impact of Smoking in Detection of Bacteria Related to Oral Disease and Human Papillomavirus". Kor J Oral Maxillofac Pathol. 37(6), pp.303-310, 2013.

M. H. Hong, "Study on Detection of Oral Bacteria in the Saliva and Risk Factors of Adults" Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 15(9), pp.5675-5682, 2014, DOI: crossref(new window)

M. Seki, F. Karakamaa, T. Terajimaa, Y. Ichikawaa, T. Ozakib, S. Yoshidab, Y. Yamashitaa. "Evaluation of mutans streptococci in plaque and saliva: correlation with caries development in preschool children", J Dent, 31(4), pp.283-290, 2003. DOI: crossref(new window)

H. J. Jeong, S. J. Kim. "Distribution and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacteria in the Oral Cavity of Smokers or Non-Smokers", The Korean Journal of Microbiology, 46(4), pp.334-340, 2010.

S. H. Son, D. A. Kim, Y. M. Park, "A Study on Dental Caries Activity Assessment from Saliva of Students of Dentistry College (I)", J Dent Hyg Sci, 13(2), pp.182-190, 2013.

S. C. Cortelli, F. O. Costa, E. Rodrigues, L. T. Cota, J. R. Cortelli. "Periodontal Therapy Effects on Nitrite Related to Oral Bacteria: A 6-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.", J Periodontol, 26, pp.1-18, 2015. DOI:

J. O. Boyle, Z. H. Gumus, A. Kacker, V. L. Choksi, J. M.Bocker, X. K. Zhou, R. K. Yantiss, D. B. Hughes, B. Du, B. L. Judson, K. Subbaramaiah, A. J. Dannenberg. "Effects of Cigarette Smoke on the Human Oral Mucosal Transcriptome", Cancer Prev Res, 3, pp.266-278, 2010. DOI: crossref(new window)

R. C. Page, J. D. Beck. "Risk assessment for periodontal diseases", Int Dent J, 47(2), pp.61-87, 1997. DOI: crossref(new window)

A. D. Haffajee, S. S. Socransky, "Relationship of cigarette smoking to subgingival microbiota", J Clin Periodontol, 28(5), pp.377-388, 2001. DOI: crossref(new window)

J. W. Lee, M. S. Kim, Y. H. Choi, Y. S. Chang, S. C. Shin. "A study on the relation of the stimulated salivary flow rate, pH and the viscosity", International Journal of Clinical Preventive Dentistry, 4(1), pp.112-22, 2008.

W. Y. Shin. The co-relations between the various factors related with the saliva. Master's thesis, Dankook University, 2010.

H. J. Choi, J. H. Kim, D. W. Lee, Y. M. Yang, JG. Kim. "Prevalence of periodontpathogens in saliva and plaque of Korean Children and Adilescents". K Korean Acad Pediatr Dent 43(1), pp.8-17. 2016. DOI: crossref(new window)

M. A. Nadkarni, K. L. Chhour, N Hunter et al. "Age-dependent changes in porphyromonas gingivalis and prevotella specied/phylotypes in healthy gingiva and inflamed/diseased sub-gingival site". Clin Oral Investig. 19, pp.911-919, 2015. DOI: crossref(new window)

A. A. Bosy. "Relationship of oral malodor to perodontits". J periodontol 65, pp.37-46, 1994. DOI: crossref(new window)

L. Xiaojing, K. M. .Kolltveit, L. Tronstad, O. Ingar. "Systemic Diseases Caused by Oral Infection" Clin Microbiol Rev, 13(4), pp.547-88, 2000. DOI: crossref(new window)

M. Sharma, S. C. Tiwari, K. Singh, K. Kishor. "Occurrence of bacterial flora in oral infections of diabetic and non-diabetic patients", Life Sci Med Res, 32, pp.1-6, 2011. DOI:

J. L. Ebersole, S. C. Holt, R. Hansard, M. L. Novak. "Microbiologic and immunologic characteristics of periodontal disease in Hispanic americans with type 2 diabetes", J Periodontol, 79(4), pp.637-646, 2008. DOI: crossref(new window)

K. E. Kempsell, C. J. Cox, M. Hurle, A. Wong, E. D. Wilkie, J. S. Zanders, H. Gaston, J. S. Crowe, "Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis of bacterial rRNA for detection and characterization of bacterial species in arthritis synovial tissue", Infect Immun, 68(10), pp.6012-6026, 2000. DOI: crossref(new window)

K. Karnoutsos, P. Papastergiou, S. Stefanidis, A. Vakaloudi, "Periodontitis as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease: The role of antiphosphorylcholine and anti-cardiolipin antibodies", HIPPOKRATIA, 12(3), pp.144-149, 2008.

F. A. Scannapieco, R. B. Bush, S. Paju. "Associations between periodontal disease and risk for nosocomial bacterial pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A systematic review", Ann Periodontol. 8(1). pp.54-69, 2003. DOI: crossref(new window)