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Inactivation of various bacteriophages in wastewater by chlorination; Development of more reliable bacteriophage indicator systems for water reuse
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 Title & Authors
Inactivation of various bacteriophages in wastewater by chlorination; Development of more reliable bacteriophage indicator systems for water reuse
Bae, Kyung-Seon; Shin, Gwy-Am;
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There has been an accelerating increase in water reuse due to growing world population, rapid urbanization, and increasing scarcity of water resources. However, it is well recognized that water reuse practice is associated with many human health and ecological risks due to numerous chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms. Especially, the potential transmission of infectious disease by hundreds of pathogenic viruses in wastewater is one of the most serious human health risks associated with water reuse. In this study, we determined the response of different bacteriophages representing various bacteriophage groups to chlorination in real wastewater in order to identify a more reliable bacteriophage indicator system for chlorination in wastewater. Different bacteriophages were spiked into secondary effluents from wastewater plants from three different geographic areas, and then subjected to various doses of free chlorine and contact time at in a bench-scale batch disinfection system. The inactivation of was relatively rapid and reached ~4 log10 with a CT value of 5 mg/L*min. On the other hand, the inactivation of bacteriophage PRD1 and MS2 were much slower than the one for and only ~1 log10 inactivation was achieved by a CT value of 10 mg/L*min. Overall, the results of this study suggest that bacteriophage both MS2 and PRD1 could be a reliable indicator for human pathogenic viruses for chlorination in wastewater treatment processes and water reuse practice.
Bacteriophage;Chlorination;Water reuse;Waterborne virus;
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