Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of a Low-Calorie Raw Juice Diet on the Level of Serum Ferritin in Korean Adults
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of a Low-Calorie Raw Juice Diet on the Level of Serum Ferritin in Korean Adults
Lee, Kyoung Soon; Asante, Lydia S.; Chun, Sung Soo; Yun, Mi Eun;
  PDF(new window)
This study examines the effects of a low-calorie raw juice diet on the level of serum ferritin in adults and analyzes nutrient intake from the diet. There were significant differences between juices; the highest calorie was provided by pear juice, highest crude protein, vitamin A, and vitamin B2 levels were from green Juice 1; and highest vitamin C and vitamin B1 levels were from fruit juices. The ratio of estimated energy requirements (EER) for the participants was 56.2% from the raw juice diet. The percentages of recommended intake (RI) from the raw juice diet of protein (57.9%), dietary fiber (19.1%), niacin (6.2%), calcium (0.1%), and magnesium (0.2%) were lower than 75%. However, those of RI of vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and vitamin C were 1796.5%, 7481.7%, 1915.5%, 30858.7%, and 7500%, respectively, exceeding the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin A, vitamin B6, and vitamin C. There were significant decreases in weight, the body mass index (BMI), body fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass in males and females. After the diet program, serum iron and SOD (superoxide dismutase) showed significant decreases, whereas RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and serum ferritin showed significant increases. There were negative correlations between serum ferritin and weight and between serum ferritin and skeletal muscle mass for all participants. There were negative correlations between serum ferritin and skeletal muscle mass for males and between serum ferritin and body fat mass for females. These results suggest that a raw juice diet can supplement a regular diet to prevent excess or deficient nutrient intake.
raw juice diet;low calorie;nutrient;serum ferritin;
 Cited by
American College of Obstetricians Gynecologists(1993) Nutrition during pregnancy. ACOG Technical Bulletin 179 Washington, DC:ACOG(Levell III)

Arosio P, Levi S(2002) Ferritin, iron homeostasis, and oxidative damage. Free Radi Biol Med 33, 457-463 crossref(new window)

Beard J(2006) Iron, In: Present knowledge in nutrition, 9th ed. Bowman BA, etc, ILSI, pp430-444

Brudevold R, Hole T, Hammerstrom J(2008) Hyperferritinemia is associated with insulin resistance and fatty liver in patients without iron overload. PLoS ONE 3(10), e3547 crossref(new window)

Charton RW, Derman D, Skikne B(1977) Iron stores, serum ferritin and iron absorption. In: Brown EP, Aisen P, Fielding J, Crichton RR, eds. Proteins of iron metabolism. New York: Grune & Stratton, pp387-392

Cho, YO, Kim, BY(2005) Vitamin B6 intake by Koreans should be based on sufficient amount and a variety of food sources. Nutr 21, 1113-1119 crossref(new window)

Choue RW, Chung KM(2002) Nutrition assessment. Seoul: Kwangmoongak, pp109-126

Chung HR, Moon HK, Song BH, Kim MK(1991) Hemoglobin, Hematocrit and Serum Ferritin as Markers of Iron Status. Worwood M 24(5), 450-457

Chun JM(1997) A comparative study of iron status in female college students according to body mass index. Thesis of Sookmyung women's University

Cook JD, Skikne BS(1982) Serum ferritin: a possible model for the assessment of nutrient stores. Am J Clini Nutr 35, 1180-1185 crossref(new window)

Green R, Charlton R, Sertel H, Bothwell T, Mayet F, Adams B, Finch C, Layrisse M(1968) Body iron excretion in man a collaborative study. Am J Med 45, 336-353 crossref(new window)

Gropper SS, Smith JL, Groff JL(2009) Advanced nutrition and human metabolism 5th edit. Wadsworth Cengage Belmont: Learning, pp470-488

Hsuch WA(2003) New insight into understanding the relationship of type 2 diabetes melitus, insulinresistance and cadiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol 92, 10-16

Institute of Medicine(2001) Dietary reference intakes for vit A, vit K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nikel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc, the essential guide to nutrinet requirements. Wahington, D.C.: The Naional Academies Press

Institute of Medicine(2006) Dietary reference intakes: the essential guide to nutrinet requirements. Wahington, D.C.: The Naional Academies Press

Iwasa M, Hara N, Iwata K, Ishidome M, Sugimoto R, Tanaka H, Fujita N, Kobayashi1 Y, Takei Y(2010) Restriction of calorie and iron intake results in reduction of visceral fat and serum alanine aminotransferase and ferritin levels in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatology Research 40, 1188-1194 crossref(new window)

Jacobs A, Miller F, Worwood M, Beamish MR, Wordrop CA(1972) Ferritin in the serum of normal subjects and patients with iron deficiency and iron overload. Br J Med 4, 206-208 crossref(new window)

Jeong SH, Kim MA(2002) A study on serum ferrum, TIBC, and Ferritin's circadian rhythm in normal adults. J Fund Nurs 9, 113-122

Jeong SH, Park JH, Lee HO, Choue RW(2007) Effects of nutrition counseling on quality of diet, iron status and hematic parameters in college women who have self-recognized anemic symptoms. Korean J Community Nutr 12, 68-79

Kapoor RK, Kumar A, Chandra M, Misra PK, Sharam B, Awasthi S(1997) Cardiovascular responses to treadmill exercise testing in anemia. Indian Pediatrics 34, 607-612

Kim HK, Lim JH, Kwon ER, Park YJ, Kim HE, Noh WY, Seol KH, Jung MC, Kim YJ(2010) Serum ferritin and risk of the metabolic syndrome in Korean adults. Korean J Obes 19, 48-55

Kim HY(2004) The effects of green vegetable drink supplementation on cellular DNA damage, antioxidant status and plasma lipid profiles of smokers. Thesis of Hannam University

Kim JS, Kim JS, Ahn JW, Lee ST, Lee YJ, Cha YW, Choi DJ, Choi HS(2014) Fundamental of sitology. Seoul: Jigu Publishing, pp 160-161

Kim NI, Yoo MS(1999) The effects of serum lipids and aerobic exercise capacity on diet habits in mild anemia groups. Korean J Physic Edu 38(3), 375-385

Kim SY, Lee SH, Lee IS, Kim SB, Moon CS, Jung SM, Kim SK, Kim YS(2012) The relationship between serum ferritin concentrations, smooking and lung functionn in Korea. Tuberc Respir Dis 72, 163-168 crossref(new window)

Kohlmeier M(2003) Iron, In: nutrient metabolism, food science and technology, international series. Academic Press, pp667-679

Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety(2015) Food and nutrient ingredients data base Available from =18 [cited 2015 August 21]

Kwon SM(2000) Effects of antioxidant nutrients rich kale(brassica oleracea acephala) extract supplementation on serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemic adults. Thesis of Yunsei University

Lee MS, Park HY, Park JH, Lee JH, Choi SH, Jeong JO, Ku BJ, Kim DH, Lee TY, Seong IW(2006) Increased serum ferritin concentration is associated with increased arterial stiffness assessed by pulse wave velocity. JLA 16, 281-288

Lee SM, Yu RN, Rhee SH, Park KH(1997) Effects of carrot on the stability of Vitamin C in (Green - Yellow) vegetable juices. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutri 26(4), 582-587

Leong SY, Oey I(2012) Effect of endogenous ascorbic acid oxidase activity and stability on vitamin C in carrots (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) during thermal treatment. Food Chem 134, 2075-2085 crossref(new window)

Pachla LA, Reynolds DL, Kissinger PT(1985) Analytical methods for determining ascorbic acid in biological samples, food products, and pharmaceuticals. J Assoc Off Anal Chem 68(1), 1-12

Punnonen K, Irjala K, Rahamaki A(1997) Serum transferrin receptor and its ratio to serum ferritin in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Blood 89(3), 1052-1057

Salonen JT, Nyyssönen K, Korpela H, Tuomilehto J, Seppanen R, Salonen R(1992) High stored iron levels are associated with excess risk of myocardial infarction in eastern finnish men. Circulation 86(3), 803-811 crossref(new window)

Sjoholm A, Nystrom T (2005) Endothelial inflamation in insulin resistance. Lancet 365, 610-612 crossref(new window)

Sung CJ(1998) Nutrition assessment. Seoul: Chunggumoonhwasa, pp119-154

Sung CJ, Jang S(2005) A comparative study of the iron nutritional status of female college women according to bone mineral density. Nutr Sci 8(1), 71-76

The Korean Nutrition Society(2006) CAN-Pro 3.0 software (nutritional analysis rogram)

The Korean Nutrition Society(2010) Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans. Seoul: The Korean Nutrition Society, pp405-409

Walters GO, Miller FM, Worwood M(1973) Serum ferritin concentration and iron stores in normal subjects. J Clin Pathol 26, 770-772 crossref(new window)

Worwood M(1979) Serum ferritin CRC critical reviews in clinical. Laboratory Sci 108, 171-204

Worwood M(1980) Serum ferritin. In: Jacobs A. Worwood M, eds. Iron in biochemistry and medicine. Vol II. London; Academic press, pp204-241

Worwood M(1986) Serum ferritin. Clin Sci 70, 215-220 crossref(new window)

Yun ME, Kang BY, Lee SU, Lee JK(2011) Effects offruit diet with exercise on body composition andhematological parameters according to UCP2genotype in female collegians. J East Asian Soc DietLife 21(3), 463-470

Yun ME, Kim SS(2013) Effects of a brown rice vegetarian diet and outdoor walking exercise on body composition and blood lipid parameters in collegians. J Korean Diet Assoc 19(1), 59-68 crossref(new window)

Yun ME, Ryu HS, Park HJ, Oh HK, Lee SH(2014) Nutrition for public health care. Seoul: Jigu Publisher, p50