Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Oryzalin on the Gravitropic Response and Ethylene Production in Maize Roots
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Journal of Life Science
  • Volume 25, Issue 11,  2015, pp.1223-1229
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Life Science
  • DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1223
 Title & Authors
Effect of Oryzalin on the Gravitropic Response and Ethylene Production in Maize Roots
Kim, Chungsu; Mulkey, Timothy J.; Kim, Jong-Sik; Kim, Soon Young;
  PDF(new window)
Oryzalin is a dinitroaniline herbicide, which disrupts the arrangement of microtubules. Microtubules and microfilaments are cytoskeletal components that are thought to play a role in the sedimentation of statoliths and the formation of cell walls. Statoliths regulate the perception of gravity by columella cells in the root tip. To determine the effect of oryzalin on the gravitropic response, ethylene production in primary roots of maize was investigated. Treatment with 10-4 M oryzalin to the root tip inhibited the growth and gravitropic response of the roots. However, the treatment had no effect on the elongation zone of the roots. An application of 10-4 M oryzalin for 15 hr to the root tip caused root tip swelling. The application of 1-aminocycopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), a precursor of ethylene, to the root tip also inhibited the gravitropic response. To understand the role of oryzalin in the regulation of the growth and gravitropic response of roots, ethylene production in the primary roots of maize was measured following treatment with oryzalin. Oryzalin stimulated ethylene production via the activation of ACC oxidase (ACO) and ACC synthase (ACS), and it increased the expression of ACO and ACS genes. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) played a key role in the asymmetric elongation rates observed during gravitropism. The results suggest that oryzalin alters the gravitropic response of maize roots through modification of the arrangement of microtubules. This might reduce the distribution of IAA in the upper and lower sides of the elongation zone and increase ethylene production, thereby inhibiting growth and gravitropic responses.
ACC;ethylene;gravitropic response;microtubule;oryzalin;
 Cited by
Abeles, F. B., Morgan, P. W. and Saltveit, M. E. Jr. 1992. Ethylene in plant physiology. 2nd edition, Academic Press. San Diego, USA.

Blancaflor, E. B. 2013. Regulation of plant gravity sensing and signaling by the actin cytoskeleton. Am. J. Bot. 100, 143-152. crossref(new window)

Blancaflor, E. B. and Masson, P. H. 2003. Plant gravitropism. Uunraveling the ups and downs of a complex process. Plant Physiol. 133, 1677-1690. crossref(new window)

Hou, G., Mohamalawari, D. R. and Blancaflor, E. B. 2003. Enhanced gravitropism of roots with a disrupted cap actin cytoskeleton. Plant Physiol. 131, 1360-1373. crossref(new window)

Kim, S. Y. and Mulkey, T. J. 1997. Effect of ethylene antagonists on auxin-induced inhibition of intact primary root elongation in maize (Zea mays L). J. Plant Biol. 40, 256-260. crossref(new window)

Kim, S. Y., Kim, Y. K., Kwon, K. S. and Kim, K. W. 2000. Action of malformin A1 on gravitropic curvature in primary roots of maize (Zea mays L.). J. Plant Biol. 43, 183-188. crossref(new window)

Lee, J. S., Chang, W. K. and Evans, M. L. 1990. Effects of ethylene on the kinetics of curvature and auxin redistribution in gravistimulated roots of Zea mays. Plant Physiol. 94, 1770-1775. crossref(new window)

Ma, Z. and Ren, Y. 2012. Ethylene interacts with auxin in regulating developmental attenuation of gravitropism in flax root. J. Plant Growth Regul. 31, 509-518. crossref(new window)

Morejohn, L. C., Bureau, T. E., Mole-Bajer, J., Bajer, A. S. and Fosket, D. F. 1987. Oryzalin, a dinitroaniline herbicide, binds to plant tubulin and inhibits microtubule polymerization in vitro. Planta 172, 252-264. crossref(new window)

Morita, M. T. 2010. Directional gravity sensing in gravitropism. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 61, 705-720. crossref(new window)

Mulkey, T. J., Kuzmanoff, K. M. and Evans, M. L. 1982. Promotion of growth and hydrogen ion efflux by auxin in roots of maize pretreated with ethylene biosynthesis inhibitors. Plant Physiol. 70, 186-188. crossref(new window)

Ottenschläger, I., Wolff, P., Wolverton, C., Bhalerao, R. P., Sandberg, G., Ishikawa, H., Evans, M. and Palme, K. 2003. Gravity-regulated differential auxin transport from columella to lateral root cap cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 2987-2991. crossref(new window)

Ruzicka, K., Ljung, K., Vanneste, S., Podhorska, R., Beeckman, T., Friml, J. and Benkova, E. 2007. Ethylene regulates root growth through effects on auxin biosynthesis and transport-dependent auxin distribution. Plant Cell 19, 2197-2212. crossref(new window)

Santhisree, P., Nongmaithem, S., Sreelakshmi, Y., Ivanchenko, M. and Sharma, R. 2012. The root as a drill: An ethylene-auxin interaction facilitates root penetration in soil. Plant Signal. Behav. 7, 151-156. crossref(new window)

Schwuchow, J. and Sack, F. D. 1994. Microtubules restrict plastid sedimentation in protonemata of the moss Ceartodon. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 29, 366-374. crossref(new window)

Strachan, S. D. and Hess, F. D. 1983. The biochemical mechanism of action of the dinitroaniline herbicide oryzalin. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 20, 141-150. crossref(new window)

Swarup, R., Perry, P., Hangenbeek, D., Van Der Straeten, D., Beemster, G. T., Sandberg, G., Bhalerao, R., Ljungt, K. and Bennett, M. J. 2007. Ethylene up-regulates auxin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seedlings to enhance inhibition of root cell elongation. Plant Cell 19, 2186-2196. crossref(new window)

Wang, H. and Woodson, W. R. 1989. Reversible inhibition of ethylene action and interruption of petal senescence on carnation flowers by norbornadiene. Plant Physiol. 89, 434-438 crossref(new window)

Woeste, K. E., Ye, C. and Kieber, J. J. 1999. Two Arabidopsis mutants that overproduce ethylene are affected in the posttranscriptional regulation of 10-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase. Plant Physiol. 119, 521-530. crossref(new window)

Yuan, M., Shaw, P. J., Warn, R. M. and Lloyd, C. W. 1994. Dynamic reorientation of cortical microtubules, from transverse to longitudinal, in living plant cell. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, 6050-6053. crossref(new window)

Zarembinski, T. I. and Theologis, A. 1994. Ethylene biosynthesis and action: a case of conservation. Plant Mol. Biol. 26, 1579-1597. crossref(new window)