Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Clinical Evaluation between Overtraining Syndrome and Exercise-related Immunity
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Journal of Life Science
  • Volume 25, Issue 11,  2015, pp.1324-1330
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Life Science
  • DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2015.25.11.1324
 Title & Authors
The Clinical Evaluation between Overtraining Syndrome and Exercise-related Immunity
Choi, Seung-Jun; Park, Song-young; Kwak, Yi-Sub;
  PDF(new window)
The present study was performed to analyze and review the physical and immune responses to overtraining syndrome in humans. Overreaching refers to the initial phage of overtraining syndrome and has been known as a physical fatigue which is mainly from metabolic imbalance. It has been known that overtraining also results in a loss of adaptability which may lead to an attenuation of exercise performance, sleeping disorder, central fatigue, neurohormonal changes, difficulty recovery to physical stress, and immunological changes. Additionally, overtraining syndrome is characterized by persistent fatigue, poor performance in sport due to the prolonged and strenuous physical training. Also, previous studies reported that endurance athletes experienced a high incidence of URTI during intense training and the post training. And also, high-performance athletes reported that suppression of cell mediated and anti-body mediated immune function. NK cell numbers were also reduced in the period of overtraining syndrome. Major components of prevention and treatment for the overtraining syndrome are screening, education, and detraining. Furthermore, the combination of these prevention and treatment strategies will be much helpful. Therefore, the current review will be helpful for athletes and individuals who are at the risk of overtraining syndrome.
Exercise-related immunity;immune responses;immunological changes;overtraining syndrome;strenuous physical training;
 Cited by
Ackel-D’Elia, C., Vancini, R. L., Castelo, A., Nouailhetas, V. L. and Silva, A. C. 2015. Absence of the predisposing factors and signs and symptoms usually associated with overreaching and overtraining in physical fitness centers. Clinics 65, 1161-1166.

Angeli, A., Minetto, M., Dovio, A. and Paccotti, P. 2004. The overtraining syndrome in athletes: a stress-related disorder. J. Endocrinol. invest. 6, 603-612.

Apostolopoulos, V., Borkoles, E., Polman, R. and Stojanovska, L. 2014. Physical and immunological aspects of exercise in chronic diseases. Immunotherapy 6, 1145-1157. crossref(new window)

Blundell, J. E., Gibbons. C., Caudwell, P., Finlayson, G. and Hopkins, M. 2015. Appetite control and energy balance: impact of exercise. Obes. Rev. 1, 67-76.

Brich, K. and George, K. 1999. Overtraining the female athlete. J. Bodyw. Mov. Ther. 3, 24-29. crossref(new window)

Brooks, K. and Carter, J. 2013. Overtraining, exercise, and adrenal insufficiency. J. Nov. Physiother. 3, 1-10.

Carfangno, D. G. and Hendri, J. C. 3rd. 2014. Overtraining syndrome in the athlete: current clinical practice. Curr. Sports Med. Rep. 13, 45-51. crossref(new window)

Eichner, E. R. 1995. Overtraining: consequences and prevention. J. Sports Sci. 13, 41-48. crossref(new window)

Gremion, G. and Kuntzer, T. 2014. Fatigue and reduction in motor performance in sportspeople or overtraining syndrome. Rev. Med. Suisse. 10, 962-965.

Guezennec, C. Y. 2004 Overtraining syndrome. Bull. Acad. Natl. Med. 188, 923-930.

Hackney, A. C. and Koltun, K. J. 2012. The immune system and overtraining in athletes: clinical implications. Acta. Clin. Croat. 51, 633-641.

Hackney, A. C. 2013. Clinical management of immune-suppression in athletes associated with exercise training: sports medicine considerations. Acta. Med. Iran. 51, 751-756.

Halson, S. L. and Jeukendrup, A. E. 2004. Does overtraining exist? An analysis of overreaching and overtraining research. Sports Med. 34, 967-981. crossref(new window)

Hawley, C. J. and Schoene, P. B. 2003. Overtraining syndrome: a guide to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Phys. Sportsmed. 31, 25-31.

He, C. S., Bishop, N. C., Handzik, M. K., Muhamad, A. S. and Gleeson, M. 2014. Sex differences in upper respiratory symptoms prevalence and oral-respiraory mucosal immunity in endurance athletes. Exerc. Immunol. Rev. 20, 8-22.

Jayasinghe, H., Kopsaftis, Z. and Carson, K. 2015. Asthma bronchiale and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Respiration 89, 505-512. crossref(new window)

Jin, C. H., Paik, I. Y., Kwak, Y. S., Jee, Y. S. and Kim, J. Y. 2015. Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercise induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress. J. Exerc. Rehabil. 11, 198-203 crossref(new window)

Kim, C. W., Figueroa, A., Park, C. H., Kwak, Y. S., Kim, K. B., Seo, D. Y. and Lee, H. R. 2013. Combined effects of food and exercise on anaphylaxis. Nutr. Res. Pract. 7, 347-351. crossref(new window)

Kreher, J. B. and Schwartz, J. B. 2012. Overtraining syndrome: a practical guide. Sports Health. 4, 123-138.

Lakier Smith, L. 2003. Overtraining, excessive exercise, and altered immunity: is this a Thelper-1 versus T helper-2 lymphocyte response? Sports Med. 33, 347-364. crossref(new window)

Laurel, T. M. 2000. Overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes. Immunol. Cell Biol. 78, 502-509. crossref(new window)

Le Meur, Y., Hausswirth, C., Natta, F., Couturier, A., Bignet, F. and Vidal, P. P. 2013. A multidisciplinary approach to overreaching detection in endurance trained athletes. J. Appl. Physiol. 114, 411-420. crossref(new window)

Lee, H. K., Hwang, I. H., Kim, S. Y. and Pyo, S. Y. 2014. The effect of exercise on prevention of the common cold: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial studies. Kor. J. Fam. Med. 35, 119-126. crossref(new window)

Li, C. Y., Hsu, G. S., Suzuki, K., Ko, M. H. and Fang, S. H. 2015. Salivary immune Factors, Cortisol and Testosterone Responses in Atheletes of a Competitive 5,000m Race. Chin. J. Physiol. 58, 263-269. crossref(new window)

Mackinnon, L. T. and Hooper, S. 1994. Mucosal (secretory) immune system responses to exercise of varying intensity and during overtraining. Int. J. Sports Med. 3, 179-183.

Margonis, K., Fatouros, I. G., Jamurtas, M. Z., Nikolaidis, M. G., Douroudos, I., Chatzinikolaou, A., Mitrakou, A., Mastorakos, G., Papassotiriou, I., Taxildaris, K. and Kouretas, D. 2007. Oxidative stress biomarkers responses to physical overtraining: implications for diagonosis. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 43, 901-910. crossref(new window)

Matsuo, H., Yokooji, T. and Taogoshi, T. 2015. Common food allergens and their IgE-binding epitopes. Allergol. Int. 64, 332-343. crossref(new window)

Meeusen, R., Duclos, M., Foster, C., Gleeson, M., Nieman, D., Raqlin, J., Rietjens, G., Steinacker, J. and Urhausen, A. 2013. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtaining syndrom. Med. Sci. Sports Exers. 45, 186-205. crossref(new window)

Michael, G. 2002. Biochemical and immunological markers of over-training. J. Sports Sci. Med. 1, 31-41.

Montgomery, S. L. 2015. Cholinergic urticaria and exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Curr. Sports Med. Rep. 14, 61-63. crossref(new window)

Morton, R. W., McGlory, C. and Phillips, S. M. 2015. Nutritional interventions to augment resistance training- induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Front. Physiol. 6, 245.

Nicolas, M., Banizette, M. and Millet, G. Y. 2011. Stress and recovery states after a 24 h ultra-marathon race: A onemonth follow-up study. Psychol. Sport Exerc. 12, 368-374. crossref(new window)

Nieman, D. C. 2000. Is infection risk linked to exercise workload?. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32, 406-411. crossref(new window)

Peijie, C., Hongwu, L., Fengpeng, X., Jie, R. and Jie, Z. 2003. Heavy load exercise induced dysfunction of immunity and neuroendocrine responses in rats. Life Sci. 72, 2252-2262.

Purvis, D., Gonsalves, S. and Deuster, P. A. 2010. Physiological and psychological fatigue in extreme conditions: overtraining and elite athletes. PM R. 2, 412-450.

Rowbottom, D. G., Keast, D., Goodman, C. and Morton, A. R. 1995. The hematological, biochemical and immunological profile of atheletes suffering from the overtraining syndrome. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. Occup. Physiol. 70, 502-509. crossref(new window)

Sharp, N. C. and Koutedakis, Y. 1992. Sport and the overtraining syndrome: immunological aspects. Br. Med. Bull. 48, 518-533.

Shephard, R. J. 2001. Chronic fatigue syndrome: an update. Sports Med. 31, 167-194. crossref(new window)

Silva, D. and Moreira, A. 2015. The role of sports and exercise in allergic disease: drawbacks and benefits. Expert Rev. Clin. Immunol. 11, 993-1003. crossref(new window)

Smith, L. L. 2000. Cytokine hypothesis of overtraining: a physiological adaptation to excessive stress? Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 32, 317-331. crossref(new window)

Tian, Y., He, Z., Zhao, J., Tao, D., Xu, K., Midgley, A. and McNaughton, L. 2015. An 8-year longitudinal study of overreaching in 114 elite female Chinese wreslers. J. Ahtl. Train 50, 217-223. crossref(new window)

Tipton, K. D. and Phillips, S. M. 2013. Dietary protein for muscle hypertrophy. Nestle Nutr. Inst. Workshop Ser. 76, 73-84. crossref(new window)

Vuljanko, I. M. and Plavec, D. 2014. Exercise-induced asthma in athletes-a review. Lijec. Vjesn. 136, 339-345.

Winsley, R. and Matos, N. 2011. Overtraining and elite young athletes. Med. Sport. Sci. 56, 97-105.

Zoppi, C. C. and Macedo, D. V. 2008. Overreaching-induced oxidative stress, enhanced HSP72 expression, antioxidant and oxidative enzymes downregulation. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 18, 67-76.