Classification of Antimicrobial Peptides among the Innate Immune Modulators Lee, Jong-Hwan;
Multidrug-resistant super bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections are major health threaten pathogens. However, to overcome the present healthcare situation, among the leading alternatives to current drugs are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are abundantly produced via various species in nature. AMPs, small host defense proteins, are in charge of the innate immunity for the protection of multicellular organisms such as fish, amphibian, reptile, plants and animals from infection. The number of AMPs identified per year has increased steadily since the 1980s. Over 2,000 natural AMPs from bacteria, protozoa, fungi, plants, and animals have been listed into the antimicrobial peptide database (APD). The majority of these AMPs (>86%) possess 11–50 amino acids with a net charge from 0 to +7 and hydrophobic percentages between 31–70%. This report classified AMP into several categories including biological source, biological functions, peptide properties, covalent bonding pattern, and 3D structure. AMP functions not only antimicrobial activity but facilitates cell biological activity such as chemotatic activity. In addition, fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC) originated from mouse lymph node stroma induced the expression of AMP in inflammatory condition. AMP induced from FRC contained whey acidic protein (WAP) domain. It suggests that the classification of AMP will be done by protein domain.
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