Improvement Effect of Fermented Orostachys malacophyllus against Orotic Acid-induced Fatty Liver Model Rats Ahn, Hee-Young; Choe, Da-Jeong; Cho, Young-Su;
This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Orostachys malacophyllus (OM) and fermented O. malacophyllus (FOM) in Sprague-Dawley rats who had been intoxicated with 1% (w/w) orotic acid (OA) for 10 days. The activities of several hepatic enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and cholinesterase, were increased when OA was given, but these parameters were significantly decreased by FOM treatment. In addition, OA treatment resulted in an increased lipid peroxidative index (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, TBARS). A worsened antioxidant status (reduced glutathione) in the liver and serum was also observed. FOM treatment improved the antioxidant status of OA-induced fatty-liver rats, which was evaluated by decreased levels of the lipid peroxidative index and improved antioxidant status in the liver and serum. The contents of liver non-heme iron were increased with OA treatment and significantly decreased with FOM treatment, which suggested that the lipid peroxidation contents were inversely correlated with liver non-heme iron content. Based on these results, FOM is considered a material with significant potential for development into a functional health food that can improve fatty-liver conditions.
A.O.A.C. 1975. Official methods of analysis. 12th eds., Association of official analytical chemists. Washington DC, USA.
Anderson, M. E. 1998. Glutathione biosynthesis. Chem. Biol. Interact 24, 1-14.
Bendich, A., Machlin, L. J. and Scandurra, O. 1986. The antioxidant role of vitamin C. Free Radic. Bio. Med. 2, 419-444.
Beutler, E., Duron, O. and Kelly, B. M. 1963. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 61, 882-888.
Bruce, A. F. and Carpo, J. D. 1982. Biology of disease : free radicals and tissue injury. Lab. Inves. 47, 412-438.
Cha, J. Y., Meada, Y., Oogami, K., Yamamoto, K. and Yanagita, T. 1998. Association between hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation induced by administering orotic acid and enhenced phospatidate phosphohydrase activity in rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 62, 508-513.
Chiba, H., Takasaki, M., Masuyama, R., Uehara, Kanke, Y., Suzuki, K. and Goto, K. 1998. Time course of change in hepatic lipid peroxide level in iron-deficient rats. J. Jpn. Soc. Nutr. Food Sci. 51, 201-206.
Duncan, D. B. 1959. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometrics 1, 1-42.
Jeong, K. J., Chon, Y. S., Ha, S. H. and Yun, J. G. 2013. Optimum light intensity, media and fertilization for potted Orostachys malacophyullus from Taebaek. Flower Res. J. 21, 46-51.
Ki, H. Y., Song, S. W., Ha, C. S. and Han, S. S. 1993. Effects of the population density on growth and various physiological values of sprague-dawley rats. Kor. J. Lab. Ani. Sci. 9, 71-82.
Kim, C. H., Park, J. H., Lim, J. K., Lee, K. J., Chung, G. Y. and Jeong, H. J. 2003. The activity of antioxidants of Orostachys jaonicus A. Berger. Kor. J. Med. Corp. Sci. 11, 31-39.
Kim, N. H. 2013. The analysis of non-pharmacological intervention study for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: intervention types and measurement parameters. J. Kor. Biol. Nur. Sci. 15, 43-53.
Klaus, J. and Henke, W. 1996. Developmental changes of antioxdiant enzyme in kidney and liver from rats. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 20, 613-620.
Lee, H. S., Ryu, D. S., Lee, G. S. and Lee, D. S. 2012. Anti-inflammatory effects of dichloromethane fraction from Orstachys japonicus in RAW 264.7 cells: suppression of NF-kB activation and MAPK signaling. J. Ethnopharmacol. 140, 271-276.
Lee, S. J., Seo, J. K., Shin, J. H., Lee, H. J. and Sung, N. J. 2008. Antioxidant activity of Wa-song (Orostachys japonicus A. Berger) according to drying methods. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 37, 605-611.
Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L. and Randall, R. S. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193, 265-275.
McCullough, A. J. 2002. Update on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. 34, 255-262.
Meister, A. and Anderson, M. E. 1983. Glutathione. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 52, 711-771.
Ohkawa, H., Ohishi, N. and Yagi, K. 1979. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem. 95, 351-358.
Park, K. R., Ahn, H. Y. and Cho, Y. S. 2014. Effect of Orostachys malacophyllus by fermented lactic acid bacteria on plasma levels of lipid and lipid peroxidation in alcohol feeding rats. J. Life Sci. 24, 677-685.
Plaa, G. L. and Charbonneau, M. 1994. Detection and evaluation of chemically induced liver injury. Principles and Methods of Toxicology 5th ed. 1465-1507.
Plaa, G. L. and Witschi, H. 1976. Chemicals, drugs and lipid peroxidation. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 16, 125-141.
Shin, J. H., Lee, S. J., Seo, J. K., Lee, H. J., Ju, J. C. and Sung, N. J. 2012. Effect of a combined extract of Orostachys japonicus with medicinal plants on the lipid composition of the liver and kidney from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 41, 510-518.
Sohn, J. H. and Kim, T. Y. 2010. Recent update on pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Kor. J. Intern. Med. 79, 461-474.
Yoon, S. Y., Lee, S. Y., Kim, K. B. W. R., Song, E. J., Kim, S. J., Lee, S. J., Lee, C. H. and Ahn, D. H. 2009. Antimicrobial activity of the solvent extract from different parts of Orostachys japonicus. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 38, 14-18