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Transcriptional Regulation of Genes by Enhancer RNAs
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  • Journal title : Journal of Life Science
  • Volume 26, Issue 1,  2016, pp.140-145
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Life Science
  • DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.1.140
 Title & Authors
Transcriptional Regulation of Genes by Enhancer RNAs
Kim, Yea Woon; Kim, AeRi;
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Genes in multicellular organisms are transcribed in development, differentiation, or tissue-specific manners. The transcription of genes is activated by enhancers, which are transcription regulatory elements located at long distances from the genes. Recent studies have reported that noncoding RNAs are transcribed from active enhancers by RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II); these are called enhancer RNAs (eRNAs). eRNAs are transcribed bi-directionally from the enhancer core, and are capped on the 5’ end but not spliced or polyadenylated on the 3’ end. The transcription of eRNAs requires the binding of transcription activators on the enhancer and associates positively with the transcription of the target gene. The transcriptional inhibition of eRNAs or the removal of eRNA transcripts results in the transcriptional repression of the coding gene. The transcriptional procedure of eRNAs causes enhancer- specific histone modifications, such as histone H3K4me1/2. eRNA transcripts directly interact with Mediator and Rad21, a cohesin subunit, generating a chromatin loop structure between the enhancer and the promoter of the target gene. The recruitment of RNA Pol II into the promoter and its elongation through the coding region are facilitated by eRNAs. Here, we will review the features of eRNAs, and discuss the mechanism of eRNA transcription and the roles of eRNAs in the transcriptional activation of target genes.
Enhancer;eRNAs;gene transcription;
 Cited by
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