Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Development of New Analytical Method Evaluating Working Memory on Y Maze
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Journal of Life Science
  • Volume 26, Issue 2,  2016, pp.234-240
  • Publisher : Korean Society of Life Science
  • DOI : 10.5352/JLS.2016.26.2.234
 Title & Authors
Development of New Analytical Method Evaluating Working Memory on Y Maze
Gong, Da-Young; Choi, Yun-Sik;
  PDF(new window)
The Y-maze is widely used to test working memory in behavioral science. For this purpose, spontaneous alternation behavior is monitored, and an increased percentage of spontaneous alternation is regarded as enhanced working memory. However, in some cases, the percentage of spontaneous alternation does not accurately reflect the extent of working memory in rodents. To complement the short-comings of this measure, we developed a new method to evaluate working memory on the Y-maze. This is done by defining all spontaneous alternation cases and Pi, the probability that the rodent achieved spontaneous alternation from each alternation case. After all Pi-values acquired in each animal are summarized, the result is considered as entropy. To validate the new analytical method, mice were raised under either control or an enriched environmental condition for 10 weeks, and working memory behavior on the Y-maze was monitored. The results showed that the new analytical method successfully reproduced significance. In addition, the new method turned out to be more accurate than measurement of the percentage of spontaneous alternation, meaning that, to get higher entropy, alternation should be recorded in all arms and directions. Together, these data indicate that the new analytical method is a useful supplement to the method that compares the percentage of spontaneous alternation, and thus is a good tool with which to evaluate working memory in rodents.
Algorithm;rodent;spontaneous alternation;working memory;Y-maze;
 Cited by
Effect of rotation preference on spontaneous alternation behavior on Y maze and introduction of a new analytical method, entropy of spontaneous alternation, Behavioural Brain Research, 2017, 320, 219  crossref(new windwow)
Bannerman, D. M., Niewoehner, B., Lyon, L., Romberg, C., Schmitt, W. B., Taylor, A., Sanderson, D. J., Cottam, J., Sprengel, R., Seeburg, P. H., Köhr, G. and Rawlins, J. N. 2008. NMDA receptor subunit NR2A is required for rapidly acquired spatial working memory but not incremental spatial reference memory. J. Neurosci. 28, 3623-3630 crossref(new window)

Belcheva, I., Tashev, R. and Belcheva, S. 2007. Hippocampal asymmetry in serotonergic modulation of learning and memory in rats. Laterality 12, 475-486. crossref(new window)

Choi, Y. S. 2013. Expression of Tbr2 in the hippocampus following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. J. Life Sci. 23, 1532-1540. crossref(new window)

Dember, W. N. and Fowler, H. 1958. Spontaneous alternation behavior. Psychol. Bull. 55, 412-428. crossref(new window)

D'Esposito, M. and Postle, B. R. 2015. The cognitive neuroscience of working memory. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 66, 115-142. crossref(new window)

Devi, L. and Ohno, M. 2012. 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a small-molecule TrkB agonist, reverses memory deficits and BACE1 elevation in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychopharmacology 37, 434-444. crossref(new window)

Dudchenko, P. A., Talpos, J., Young, J. and Baxter, M. G. 2013. Animal models of working memory: a review of tasks that might be used in screening drug treatments for the memory impairments found in schizophrenia. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 37, 2111-2124. crossref(new window)

Hughes, R. N. 2004. The value of spontaneous alternation behavior (SAB) as a test of retention in pharmacological investigations of memory. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 28, 497-505. crossref(new window)

Ikkai, A. and Curtis, C. E. 2011. Common neural mechanisms supporting spatial working memory, attention and motor intention. Neuropsychologia 49, 1428-1434 crossref(new window)

Kaur, G., Sharma, A., Xu, W., Gerum, S., Alldred, M. J., Subbanna, S., Basavarajappa, B. S., Pawlik, M., Ohno, M., Ginsberg, S. D., Wilson, D. A., Guilfoyle, D. N. and Levy, E. 2014. Glutamatergic transmission aberration: a major cause of behavioral deficits in a murine model of Down's syndrome. J. Neurosci. 34, 5099-5106. crossref(new window)

Kopec, C. D., Kessels, H. W., Bush, D. E., Cain, C. K., LeDoux, J. E. and Malinow, R. 2007. A robust automated method to analyze rodent motion during fear conditioning. Neuropharmacology 52, 228-233. crossref(new window)

Lainiola, M., Procaccini, C. and Linden, A. M. 2014. mGluR3 knockout mice show a working memory defect and an enhanced response to MK-801 in the T- and Y-maze cognitive tests. Behav. Brain Res. 266, 94-103. crossref(new window)

Lee, M. Y., Yu, J. H., Kim, J. Y., Seo, J. H., Park, E. S., Kim, C. H., Kim, H. and Cho, S. R. 2013. Alteration of synaptic activity-regulating genes underlying functional improvement by long-term exposure to an enriched environment in the adult brain. Neurorehabil. Neural Repair 27, 561-574. crossref(new window)

Li, B., Arime, Y., Hall, F. S., Uhl, G. R. and Sora, I. 2010. Impaired spatial working memory and decreased frontal cortex BDNF protein level in dopamine transporter knockout mice. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 628, 104-107. crossref(new window)

Lloyd, K., Becker, N., Jones, M. W. and Bogacz, R. 2012. Learning to use working memory: a reinforcement learning gating model of rule acquisition in rats. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 6, 87.

McLaughlin, B., Buendia, M. A., Saborido, T. P., Palubinsky, A. M., Stankowski, J. N. and Stanwood, G. D. 2012. Haploinsufficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase C-terminus of heat shock cognate 70 interacting protein (CHIP) produces specific behavioral impairments. PLoS One 7, e36340. crossref(new window)

Niimi, K., Takahashi, E. and Itakura, C. 2008. Improved short-term memory and increased expression of NR2B observed in senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) P6. Exp. Gerontol. 43, 847-852. crossref(new window)

Olver, J. S., Pinney, M., Maruff, P. and Norman, T. R. 2015. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress. Stress Health 31, 115-123. crossref(new window)

Olton, D. S. and Samuelson, R. J. 1976. Remembrance of places passed: spatial memory in rats. J. Exp. Psychol. Anim. Behav. Process. 2, 97-116. crossref(new window)

Pillai, J. A., Bonner-Jackson, A., Walker, E., Mourany, L. and Cummings, J. L. 2014. Higher working memory predicts slower functional decline in autopsy-confirmed Alzheimer's disease. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disord. 38, 224-233. crossref(new window)

Ren, H., Zhang, C., Huang, C., Li, N., Li, M., Li, Y., Deng, W., Ma, X., Xiang, B., Wang, Q. and Li, T. 2015. Unravelling genes and pathways implicated in working memory of schizophrenia in Han Chinese. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 16, 2145-2161. crossref(new window)

Sierksma, A. S., van den Hove, D. L., Pfau, F., Philippens, M., Bruno, O., Fedele, E., Ricciarelli, R., Steinbusch, H. W., Vanmierlo, T. and Prickaerts, J. 2014. Improvement of spatial memory function in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice after chronic inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 4D. Neuropharmacology 77, 120-130. crossref(new window)

Typlt, M., Mirkowski, M., Azzopardi, E., Ruettiger, L., Ruth, P. and Schmid, S. 2013. Mice with deficient BK channel function show impaired prepulse inhibition and spatial learning, but normal working and spatial reference memory. PLoS One 8, e81270. crossref(new window)

Vancassel, S., Aïd, S., Pifferi, F., Morice, E., Nosten-Bertrand, M., Chalon, S. and Lavialle, M. 2005. Cerebral asymmetry and behavioral lateralization in rats chronically lacking n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biol. Psychiatry 58, 805-811. crossref(new window)

Vargas, W. M., Bengston, L., Gilpin, N. W., Whitcomb, B. W. and Richardson, H. N. 2014. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats. J. Neurosci. 34, 14777-14782. crossref(new window)

Vorhees, C. V. and Williams, M. T. 2014. Assessing spatial learning and memory in rodents. ILAR J. 55, 310-332. crossref(new window)

Wang, M., Gamo, N. J., Yang, Y., Jin, L. E., Wang, X. J., Laubach, M., Mazer, J. A., Lee, D. and Arnsten, A. F. 2011. Neuronal basis of age-related working memory decline. Nature 476, 210-213. crossref(new window)

Wolff, S. C., Hruska, Z., Nguyen, L. and Dohanich, G. P. 2008. Asymmetrical distributions of muscarinic receptor binding in the hippocampus of female rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 588, 248-250. crossref(new window)

Yamazaki, M., Okabe, M., Yamamoto, N., Yarimizu, J. and Harada, K. 2015. Novel 5-HT5A receptor antagonists ameliorate scopolamine-induced working memory deficit in mice and reference memory impairment in aged rats. J. Pharmacol. Sci. 127, 362-369. crossref(new window)