Effect of Anti-oxidant, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-invasive of PMA-induced Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-9 Activities of Water Extract and Solvent Fractions of Saururus Chinensis Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Eun-Jung;
Saururus chinensis is a perennial plants, its flavonoid compound is known to exhibit anti-oxidative activity. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of Water Extract and Solvent Fractions of Saururus chinensis on antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-invasive of Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) and MMP-9 activities. Plant samples were fractionated into hexane, CHCl3, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions, and each of these was assayed individually. The water fraction showed the highest extraction yield at 9.25%(w/w). Anti-oxidative activity was analyzed by DPPH assay. Cell viability was detected by the MTS assay. Anti-inflammatory activity was assayed by the nitric oxide (NO) production in mouse macrophage Raw 264.7 cells. The activity and mRNA expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in human oral squamous carcinoma YD-10B cells were examined by zymography and RT-PCR. As results, MMP-2/-9 activation was increased in PMA induced YD-10B cells. In PMA-treated YD-10B cells, the increased mRNA expression and protein activation of MMP-2/-9 were significantly inhibited in the ethyl acetate fraction. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-oxidative activity at 73.38%. The ethyl acetate fraction at non-cytotoxic concentrations significantly exhibited the anti-inflammatory activity of Raw 264.7 cells in dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from a chinensis water extract potentiates a promising therapeutic anti-invasive agent and, therefore, as an anti-cancer drug for cancer prevention and therapy in oral cancer.
Back, M., Ketelhuth, D. F. and Agewall, S. 2010. Matrix metalloproteinases in atherothrombosis. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 52, 410-428.
Blois, M. S. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stale free radical. Nature 181, 1119-1120.
Chernov, A. V. and Strongin, A. Y. 2011. Epigenetic regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and their collagen substrates in cancer. Biomol. Concepts 2, 135-147.
Choi, Y. H. and Kim, S. O. 2012. Grnistein suppresses TPA-induced matrix metalloproteinases activity and cell invasion in human breast adenocarcinoma cells. J. Life Sci. 22, 964-969.
Chung, B. S. and Shin, M. G. 1990. Dictionary of Korean Folk Medicine. Young Lim Sa, Seoul, pp. 813-814.
Coleman, J. W. 2001. Nitric oxide in immunity and inflammation. Int. Immnopharmacol. 1, 1397-1406.
Grivennikov, S. I., Greten, F. R. and Karin, M. 2010. Immunity, inflammation, and cancer. Cell 140, 883-899.
Hadler-Olsen, E., Fadnes, B., Sylte, I., Uhlin-Hansen, L. and Winberg, J. O. 2011. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in health and disease. FEBS J. 278, 28-45.
Hwang, Y. S., Park, K. K. and Chung, W. Y. 2012. Kalopanaxsaponin a inhibits the invasion of human oral squamous cell carcinoma by reducing metalloproteinase-9 mRNA stability and protein trafficking. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 35, 289-300.
Kang, C. S., Lee, M. J., Park, C. B. and Bang, I. S. 2012. Study on the antioxidative and physiological activities of Saururus chinensis. J. Life Sci. 22, 807-814.
Kang, T. H., Cho, H., Oh, H., Sohn, D. H. and Kim, Y. C. 2005. Flavonol glycosides with free radical scavenging activity of Saururus chinensis. Fitoterapia 76, 115-117.
Kieseier, B. C., Seifert, T., Giovannoni, G. and Hartung, H. P. 1999. Matrix metalloproteinases in inflammatory demyelination. Neurology 53, 20-25.
Kim, E. J., Che, Z. M., Park, Y. J., Hwang, Y. S., Kim, K. Y., Jung, D. W., Jeon, N. K., Choi, Y. W., Lee, E. J. and Kim, J. 2009. Morphogenesis and biological significance of spindle cell transformation in a spindle cell carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 275, 61-71.
Kim, S. K., Ban, S. Y., Kim, J. S. and Chung, S. K. 2005. Change of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds in Saururus chinensis by extraction conditions. J. Kor. Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 48, 89-92.
Kim, Y. J., Kim, C. K. and Kwon, Y. J. 1997. Isolation of antioxidative components of Perillae semen. Kor. J. Food Sci. Technol. 29, 38-43.
Lee, A. Y., Han, Y. A., Kim, J. E., Hong, S. H., Park, E. J. and Cho, M. H. 2015. Saururus chinensis Baill induces apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Food Chem. Toxicol. 83, 183- 192.
Lee, E., Haa, K., Yook, J. M., Jin, M. H., Seo, C. S., Son, K. H., Kim, H. P., Bas, K. H., Kan, S. S., Son, J. K. and Chang, H. W. 2006. Anti-asthmatic activity of an ethanol extract from Saururus chinensis. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29, 211-215.
Lee, E. J., Kim, J., Lee, S. A., Kim, E. J., Chun, Y. C., Ryu, M. H. and Yook, J. I. 2005. Characterization of newly established oral cancer cell lines derived from six squmous cell carcinoma and two epidermoid carcinoma cells. Exp. Mol. Med. 37, 379-390.
Mignatti, P. and Fifkin, D. B. 1993. Biology and biochemistry of proteinases in tumor invasion. Physiol. Rev. 73, 161-195.
Mook, O. R., Frederiks, W. M. and Van Noorden, C. J. 2004. The role of gelatinases in colorectal cancer progession and metastasis. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1705, 69-89.
Park, H. C., Be, H. B., Jeong, C. W., Lee, S. H., Jeung, H. J. and Kwak, S. H. 2012. Effect of manassantin B, a lignin isolated from Saururus chinensis on lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β in RAW 264.7 cells. Kor. J. Anesthesiol. 62, 161-165.
Pezzuto, J. M. 1997. Plant-derived anticancer agents. Biochem. Pharmacol. 53, 121-133.
Reuter, S., Gupta, S. C., Chaturvedi, M. M. and Aggarwal, B. B. 2010. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 49, 1603-1616.
Salagami, H., Kobayashi, M., Chien, C. H., Kanegae, H. and Kavase, M. 2007. Selective toxicityand type of cell death induced by various natural and synthetic compounds in oral squamous cell carcinoma. In Vivo 21, 311-320.
Shin, H. K., Kim, J., Lee, E. J. and Kim, S. H. 2010. Inhibitory effect of curcumin on motility of human oral squamous carcinoma YD-10B cells via suppression of ERK and NF-kB activations. Phototherapy Res. 24, 577-582.
Shouval, R. S. and Elazar, Z. 2007. ROS, mitochondria and the regulation of autophagy. Trends Cell Biol. 17, 422-427.
Sudbo, J., Bryne, M., Mal, L., Lotan, R., Reith, A. and Kildal, W. 2003. Molecular based treatment of oral cancer. Oral Oncol. 39, 749-758.
Wink, D. A., Hines, H. B., Cheng, R. Y. S., Swizer, C. H., Santana, W. F., Vitek, M. P., Ridnour, L. A. and Colton, C. A. 2011. Nitric oxide and redox mechanism in the immune response. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 89, 873-891.