Comparative Gene-Expression Analysis of Periodontal Ligament and Dental Pulp in the Human Permanent Teeth Lee, Suk Woo; Jeon, Mijeong; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Song, Je Seon; Son, Heung-Kyu; Choi, Hyung-Jun; Jung, Han-Sung; Moon, Seok-Jun; Park, Wonse; Kim, Seong-Oh;
There is no genetic activity information with the functions of dental pulp and periodontal ligament in human. The purpose of this study was to identify the gene-expression profiles of, and the molecular biological differences between periodontal ligament and dental pulp obtained from human permanent teeth. cDNA microarray analysis identified 347 genes with a fourfold or greater difference in expression level between the two tissue types 83 and 264, of which were more plentiful in periodontal ligament and dental pulp, respectively. Periodontal ligament exhibited strong expression of genes related to collagen synthesis (FAP), collagen degradation (MMP3, MMP9, and MMP13), and bone development and remodeling (SSP1, BMP3, ACP5, CTSK, and PTHLH). Pulp exhibited strong expression of genes associated with calcium ions (CALB1, SCIN, and CDH12) and the mineralization and formation of enamel and dentin (SPARC/SPOCK3, PHEX, AMBN, and DSPP). Among these genes, SPP1, SPARC/SPOCK3, AMBN, and DSPP were well known in dental research. However, the other genes are the newly found and it may help to find a good source of regenerative therapy if further study is performed.
Caton J, Bostanci N, Remboutsika E, et al. : Future dentistry: cell therapy meets tooth and periodontal repair and regeneration. J Cell Mol Med, 15:1054-1065, 2011.
Danesh-Meyer MJ : Tissue engineering in periodontics and implantology using rhBMP-2. Ann R Australas Coll Dent Surg, 15:144-149, 2000.
Song JS, Hwang DH, Kim SO, et al. : Comparative gene expression analysis of the human periodontal ligament in deciduous and permanent teeth. PLoS One, 8:e61231, 2013.
Xie YF, Shu R, Jiang SY, et al. : Comparison of microRNA profiles of human periodontal diseased and healthy gingival tissues. Int J Oral Sci, 3:125-134, 2011.
Lee YH, Na HS, Jeong SY, et al. : Comparison of inflammatory microRNA expression in healthy and periodontitis tissues. Biocell, 35:43-49, 2011.
Han X, Amar S : Identification of genes differentially expressed in cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts vs. human gingival fibroblasts by DNA microarray analysis. J Dent Res, 81:399-405, 2002.
de Araujo RM, Oba Y, Moriyama K : Identification of genes related to mechanical stress in human periodontal ligament cells using microarray analysis. J Periodontal Res, 42:15-22, 2007.
Paakkonen V, Ohlmeier S, Bergmann U, et al. : Analysis of gene and protein expression in healthy and carious tooth pulp with cDNA microarray and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Eur J Oral Sci, 113:369-379, 2005.
McLachlan JL, Smith AJ, Bujalska IJ, Cooper PR : Gene expression profiling of pulpal tissue reveals the molecular complexity of dental caries. Biochim Biophys Acta, 1741:271-281, 2005.
Paakkonen V, Vuoristo JT, Salo T, Tjaderhane L : Comparative gene expression profile analysis between native human odontoblasts and pulp tissue. Int Endod J, 41:117-127, 2008.
Heikinheimo K, Jee KJ, Niini T, et al. : Gene expression profiling of ameloblastoma and human tooth germ by means of a cDNA microarray. J Dent Res, 81:525-530, 2002.
Lee HS, Lee J, Kim SO, et al. : Comparative geneexpression analysis of the dental follicle and periodontal ligament in humans. PLoS One, 8:e84201, 2013.
Gottlow J, Nyman S, Karring T, Lindhe J : New attachment formation as the result of controlled tissue regeneration. J Clin Periodontol, 11:494-503, 1984.
Mitchell DL, West JD : Attempted orthodontic movement in the presence of suspected ankylosis. Am J Orthod, 68:404-411, 1975.
Lekic P, McCulloch CA: Periodontal ligament cell population: the central role of fibroblasts in creating a unique tissue. Anat Rec, 245:327-341, 1996.
Abrahao IJ, Martins MD, Katayama E, et al. : Collagen analysis in human tooth germ papillae. Braz Dent J, 17:208-212, 2006.
Gronthos S, Mankani M, Brahim J, et al. : Postnatal human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97:13625-13630, 2000.
Shi M, Yu DH, Chen Y, et al. : Expression of fibroblast activation protein in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its clinicopathological significance. World J Gastroenterol, 18:840-846, 2012.
Boushell LW, Kaku M, Mochida Y, Yamauchi M : Distribution and relative activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in human coronal dentin. Int J Oral Sci, 3:192-199, 2011.
Hakki SS, Hakki EE, Nohutcu RM : Regulation of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases by basic fibroblast growth factor and dexamethasone in periodontal ligament cells. J Periodontal Res, 44:794-802, 2009.
Choi ST, Kim JH, Kang EJ, et al. : Osteopontin might be involved in bone remodelling rather than in inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis. Rheumatology (Oxford), 47:1775-1779, 2008.
Daluiski A, Engstrand T, Bahamonde ME, et al. : Bone morphogenetic protein-3 is a negative regulator of bone density. Nat Genet, 27:84-88, 2001.
Choi S, Cho TJ, Kwon SK, et al. : Chondrogenesis of periodontal ligament stem cells by transforming growth factor-beta3 and bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a normal healthy impacted third molar. Int J Oral Sci, 5:7-13, 2013.
Baumbach GA, Saunders PT, Ketcham CM, et al. : Uteroferrin contains complex and high mannose-type oligosaccharides when synthesized in vitro. Mol Cell Biochem, 105:107-117, 1991.
Ouyang H, McCauley LK, Berry JE, et al. : Parathyroid hormone-related protein regulates extracellular matrix gene expression in cementoblasts and inhibits cementoblast-mediated mineralization in vitro. J Bone Miner Res, 15:2140-2153, 2000.
Wasserman RH, Taylor AN : Vitamin d3-induced calcium-binding protein in chick intestinal mucosa. Science, 152:791-793, 1966.
Selig S, Bruno S, Scharf JM, et al. : Expressed cadherin pseudogenes are localized to the critical region of the spinal muscular atrophy gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 92:3702-3706, 1995.
Yan Q, Sage EH : SPARC, a matricellular glycoprotein with important biological functions. J Histochem Cytochem, 47:1495-1506, 1999.
Buchaille R, Couble ML, Magloire H, Bleicher F : A substractive PCR-based cDNA library from human odontoblast cells: identification of novel genes expressed in tooth forming cells. Matrix Biol, 19:421-430, 2000.
Nakamura Y, Hammarstrom L, Matsumoto K, Lyngstadaas SP : The induction of reparative dentine by enamel proteins. Int Endod J, 35:407-417, 2002.
Gusman H, Santana RB, Zehnder M : Matrix metalloproteinase levels and gelatinolytic activity in clinically healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Eur J Oral Sci, 110:353-357, 2002.
Trowbridge HO : Pulp biology: progress during the past 25 years. Aust Endod J, 29:5-12, 2003.