The Mediating and Moderating Roles of Safety-specific Transformational Leadership on the Relationship between Barrier to and Intention of Reporting Medication Errors Kim, Myoung Soo;
Purpose: This study was aimed to identify the mediating and moderating effects of safety-specific transformational leadership on the relationship between barrier to and intention of reporting medication errors. Methods: Two hundred thirty seven nurses from seven different hospitals participated in the study. Safety-specific transformational leadership was measured by an instrument with 10 items, barrier to reporting medication errors with 16 items, and intention of reporting medication errors with 3 items. The data was collected from September to October 2012. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient and a hierarchial regression analysis were used. Results: There were significant negative correlations between the subcategories of barrier to reporting medication errors and intention of reporting medication errors (r=-.16~-.27, p<.001), and a positive correlation between the intention and safety-specific transformational leadership (r=.25, p<001). Transformational leadership was a mediator between barrier to and intention of reporting medication errors. Conclusion: Safety-specific transformational leadership mediated the relationships between barrier to and intention of reporting medication errors. Enhancing safety-specific transformational leadership of nursing unit managers is necessary to increase the intention to reporting medication errors.
Discriminating Power of Organization Related Variables on Intention to Medication Error Reporting, Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics, 2016, 41, 2, 155
Milch CE, Salem DN, Pauker SG, Lundquist TG, Kumar S, Chen J. Voluntary electronic reporting of medical errors and adverse events. an analysis of 92,547 reports from 26 acute care hospitals. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2006;21:165-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00322.x
Kim MS. The effectiveness of error reporting promoting strategy on nurse's attitude, patient safety culture, intention to report and reporting rate. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2010;40(2):172-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2010.40.2.172
Kim MJ. Effects of safety climate and work environment on barrier to medication administration error reporting. [master's thesis]. Busan: Pusan National University; 2013.
Bodina A, Demarchi A, Castaldi S. A web-based incident reporting system: a two years' experience in an Italian research and teaching hospital. Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunita. 2014;26(3):219-25.
Haw C, Stubbs J, Dickens GL. Barriers to the reporting of medication administration errors and near misses: an interview study of nurses at a psychiatric hospital. Journal of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing. 2014;21(9):797-805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpm.12143
Wakefield BJ, Blegen MA, Uden-Holman T, Vaughn T, Chrischilles E, Wakefield DS. Organizational culture, continuous quality improvement, and medication administration error reporting. American Journal of Medical Quality. 2001;16(4):128-4.
Kim MJ, Kim MS. Canonical correlation between organizational characteristics and barrier to medication error reporting of nurses. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society. 2014;15(2):979-88. http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/KAIS.2014.15.2.979
Holmstrom AR, Laaksonen R, Airaksinen M. How to make medication error reporting systems work-factors associated with their successful development and implementation. Health Policy. 2015;119(8):1046-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2015.03.002
Throckmorton T, Etchegaray J. Factors affecting incident reporting by registered nurses: the relationship of perceptions of the environment for reporting errors, knowledge of the nursing practice act, and demographics on intent to report errors. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. 2007;22(6):400-12.
Ajzen I, Madden TJ. Prediction of goal-directed behavior: attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioral control. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 1986;22(5):453-74.
Tabak N, Fleishman S. The intention to report medication error. Medication Law. 2011;30(3):363-82.
Williams SD, Phipps DL, Aschcroft D. Examining the attitudes of hospital pharmacists to reporting medication safety incidents using the theory of planned behaviour. International Journal of Quality Health Care. 2015;27(4):297-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzv044
Kim MS. Role of transformational-leadership in the relationship between medication error management climate and error reporting intention of nurse. Korean Journal of Adult Nursing. 2013;25(6):633-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.7475/kjan.2012.24.6.633
Leape LL. Error in medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1994;272(23):1851-7.
Zohar D, Tenne-Gazit O. Transformational leadership and group interaction as climate antecedents: a social network analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2008;93(4):744-7.
McFadden KL, Henagan, SC, Gowen CR. The patient safety chain: transformational leadership's effect on patient safety culture, initiatives, and outcomes. Journal of Operations Management. 2009;27:390-404.
Fernandez-Muniz B, Montes-Peon JM, Vazquez-Ordas CJ. Safety leadership, risk management and safety performance in Spanish firms. Safety Science. 2014;70:295-307. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2014.07.010
Barling J, Loughlin C, Kelloway EK. Development and test of a model linking safety-specific transformational leadership and occupational safety. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2002;87(3):488-96.
Na BJ. Nurses' perception of safety climate and barriers to medication administration error reporting in a university hospital. [master's thesis]. Gwangju: Chunnam University; 2010.
Kim MS. Medication error management climate and perception for system use according to construction of medication error prevention system. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2012;42(4):568-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2012.42.4.568
Kim KS, Kwon, SH, Kim, JA, Cho, SH. Nurses' perceptions of medication errors and their contributing factors in South Korea. Journal of Nursing Management. 2011;19:346-53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2834.2011.01249.x
Dovey SM, Phillips RL. What should we report to medical error reporting systems? Quality and Safety in Health Care. 2004;13(5):322-3.
Heskett J, Jones T, Loveman G, Sasser Jr WE, Schlesinger L. Putting the service-profit chain to work. Harvard Business Review. 1994;72(2):164-70.
Lukas CV, Holmes SK, Cohen AB, Restuccia J, Cramer IE, Shwartz, M, et al. Transformational change in health care systems: an organizational model. Health Care Management Review. 2007;32(4):309-20.
Uribe C, Schweikhart S, Pathak D, Dow M, Marsh GB. Perceived barriers to medical-error reporting: an exploratory investigation. Journal of Healthcare Management. 2002;47:263-79.
Judge TA, Bono JE. Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2000;85(5):751-65.
Kapp EA. The influence of supervisor leadership practices and perceived group safety climate on employee safety performance. Safety Science. 2012;50(4):1119-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.11.011
Neal A, Griffin MA. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science. 2000;34:99-109.