JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood and Urine among Residents around Camp Carroll
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Assessment of Volatile Organic Compounds in Blood and Urine among Residents around Camp Carroll
Lim, Hyun-Sul; Yang, Wonho; Kim, Geun-Bae; Cho, Young-Sung; Min, Young-Sun; Lee, Kwan; Lee, Duk Hee; Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Sunshin; Heo, Jung; Jung, Dayoung;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Objectives: Exposure to volatile organic compounds such as trichloroethylene(TCE) and perchloroethylene(PCE), along with Agent Orange, that were issued around Camp Carroll US Army Base situated in Waegwan, Chilgok-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do Province, Korea. The main objective of this study was to assess the exposure to TCE and PCE of residents of the area surrounding Camp Carroll. Methods: The TCE, PCE and trichloroethanol(TCEOH) concentrations in blood and trichlroroacetic acid(TCA) and TCEOH concentrations in urine were measured and analyzed in a total of 1,033 residents around Camp Carroll. TCA and TCEOH are metabolites of TCE and PCE, respectively. The information on demographic characteristics and exposure variables in relation to underground water were obtained through a questionnaire completed by the subjects. Results: TCE, PCE and TCEOH concentrations were not detected in blood. Detection rates of TCA and TECOH concentrations in urine were 98.5% and 36.6%, respectively. Creatinine-corrected average TCA and TCEOH concentrations were and , respectively. A significant difference was not shown between the drinking group and no drinking group for underground water, which was assumed as a potential route of exposure to TCE and PCE through the consumption of ground water. However, females drinking ground water showed a significantly higher mean level of TCA in urine than did males. There was no significant difference according to drinking ground water as a potential source of exposure to TCE and PCE in residents around Camp Carroll. Conclusions: Considering the statistical analysis of factors affecting exposure to TCE and PCE in ground water along with previous reports, TCA in urine as exposure to TCE and PCE might not be appropriate because it is found in chlorinated drinking water. Therefore, TCA concentration in urine may be the result of drinking of chlorinated water.
 Keywords
biomonitoring;exposure;groundwater;perchloroethylene;trichloroethylene;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Bader EL, Hrudey SE, Froese KL. Urinary excretion half life of trichloroacetic acide as a biomarker of exposure to chlorinated drinking water disinfection by-products. Occup Environ Med 2004;61:715-716 crossref(new window)

2.
Calafat AM, Kuklenyik Z, Caudill SP, Ashley DL. Urinary levels of trichloroacetic acid, a disinfection by-product in chlorinated drinking water in a human reference population. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2003; 111:151-154.

3.
Choi B, Park J, Hong Y. The effects of diethyldithiocarbamate on the metabolism and hepatotoxicity of trichloroethylene. Korean J Occup Environ Med, 2002;14(3):257-269.

4.
Clausen J, Robb J, Curry D, Korte N. A case study of contaminants on military ranges: Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, USA. Environmental Pollution, 2004; 129:13-21. crossref(new window)

5.
Dehen B, Humbert L, Devisme L, Stievenart M, Mathieu D et al. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroethylene fatality: case report and simple headspace SPME-capillary gas chromatographic determination in tissues. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 2000;24:22-26 crossref(new window)

6.
EPA. Toxicological review of perchloroethylene, 2008

7.
EPA. Toxicological review of trichloroethylene, 2011

8.
Fish JW, Mahle D, Abbas R. A human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for trichloroethylene and its metabolites, trichloroacetic acid and free trichloroethanol. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 1998;152:339-359 crossref(new window)

9.
Freses KL, Sinclair ML, Hrudey SE. Trichloroacetic acid as a biomarker of exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water: a human exposure trial in Adelaide, Australia. Environmental Health Perspective, 2002; 110(7):679-687 crossref(new window)

10.
Imbriani M, Niu Q, Negri S, Chittori S. Trichloroethylene in urine as biological exposure index. Industrial Health, 2001;39:225-230 crossref(new window)

11.
Kim G, Choi D, Yoon P, Kim K. Trends of groundwater quality in the areas with a high possibility of pollution. Korean Geo-Environmental Society, 2010;11:5-16

12.
Kyonggi Research Institute. Problems and policies of military environment management in the Northern region of Kyonggi province, 2001

13.
Lee KJ, Kim BH, Hong JE, Pyo HS, Park S et al. A study on the distribution of chlorination by-products(CBPs) in treated water in Korea. Water Res, 2001;35(12): 2861-2872 crossref(new window)

14.
Lee KJ, Roh SH, Kim CN, Cho MH, Cha BS et al. Effects of ethanol and phenobarbital on metabolism of trichloroethylene in rats. The Korea Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1993;5:76-87

15.
McDonald GJ, Wertz WE. PCE, TCE and TCA vapors in subslab soil gas and indoor air: a case study in upstate New York. Ground Water Monitoring& Remediation, 2007;27: 86-92 crossref(new window)

16.
Muralidhara S, Bruckner JV. Simple method for rapid measurement of trichloroethylene and its major metabolites in biological samples. Journal of Chromatography B, 1999;732: 145-153 crossref(new window)

17.
National Institute of Environmental Research, Research to standardize analysis of environmental pollutants in biological samples. 2012

18.
Ohira SI, Kirk AB, Dasgupta PK. Automated measurement of urinary creatinine by multichannel kinetic spectrophotometry. Analytical Biochemistry, 2009; 384:238-244 crossref(new window)

19.
ROK-US Joint Investigation Team Report, 2012

20.
Sin S, Byeon SH. Human health risk assessment of trichloroethylene from industrial complex A. Official Journal of Korean Society of Toxicology, 2012; 28:173-178

21.
Tanaka S, Ikeda M. A method for determination of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid in urine. Brit J Industry Med, 1968;25:214-219

22.
Tomicic C, Berode M, Oppliger A, Castella V, Leyvraz F et al. Sex differences in urinary levels of several biological indicators of exposure: a human volunteer study. Toxicology Letters, 2011;202:218-225 crossref(new window)

23.
US ATSDR. Toxicological profile for trichloroethylene, 1997

24.
WHO. Environmental health criteria 50. trichloroethylene, Geneva, 1985:11-29

25.
Yang W, Hong G, Kim GB. Review of public health aspects of exposure to agent orange. J Environ Health Sci, 2012;38(3):175-183

26.
Zhou WS, Xu L, Xie SH, Li YL, Li L et al. Decreased birth weight in relation to maternal urinary trichloroacetic acid levels. Science of the Total Environment, 2012; 416:105-110 crossref(new window)