Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Quality Characteristics of Yakju with Nuruk Extracts
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Quality Characteristics of Yakju with Nuruk Extracts
Kang, Ji-Eun; Choi, Han-Seok; Kim, Jae-Woon; Kim, Chan-Woo; Yeo, Soo-Whan; Jung, Seok-Tae;
  PDF(new window)
We investigated the fermentation characteristics of yakju made with nuruk extracts. Alcoholic fermentation was performed in an incubator set at for 14 days. The study results are as follows: the alcohol content of yakju made with modified nuruk (18.67%) was higher than that made with other nuruk extracts (14.80-17.50%). The pH value of this modified nuruk (4.13) was higher than that of traditional nuruk (3.70-4.00). The yakju containing modified nuruk showed the highest acidity (3.64 mL/10 mL), amino acidity (4.72 mL/10 mL), soluble solid (), and color difference (39.78). The concentration of organic acids in traditional nuruks was 212.25-312.97 mg/100 mL, whereas that in modified nuruk was 295.92 mg/100 mL. Nitrogen compound concentrations in modified nuruk (2285.89 mg/L) were 2-14 times higher than that in traditional nuruk. Nitrogen compound concentration and amino acidity are the physiochemical characteristics with the highest impact on off-flavor and browning of yakju. In order to reduce these unfavorable characteristics, material with a lower protein content should be used.
yakju;traditional nuruk;modified nuruk;extracts;
 Cited by
Quality Characteristics of Yakju fermented with Paddy Rice (Byeo) Nuruk Yakju, Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life, 2017, 27, 2, 159  crossref(new windwow)
Lee SR. Korean fermented foods. Ewha womans university press, Seoul, Korea. pp. 222-294 (1986)

Jung MJ, Nam YD, Roh SW, Bae JW. Unexpected convergence of fungal and bacterial communities during fermentation of traditional Korean alcoholic beverages inoculated with various natural starters. Food Microbiol. 30: 112-123 (2012) crossref(new window)

Yu TS, Kim HS, Jin H, Ha HP, Kim TY, Yoon IW. Bibliographical study on microorganisms of nuruk (until 1945). J. Korean Soc. Food Nutr. 25: 170-179 (1996)

Yu TS, Kim J, Kim HS, Hyun JS, Ha HP, Park MG. Bibliographical study on microorganisms of traditional Korean nuruk (since 1945). J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 27: 789-799 (1998)

Song SH, Lee CH, Park JM, Lee HJ, Bai DH, Yoon SS, Choi JB, Park YS. Analysis of microflora profile in Korean traditional nuruk. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 23: 40-46 (2013) crossref(new window)

Han EH, Lee TS, Noh BS, Lee DS. Quality characteristics in mash of takju prepared by using different nuruk during fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 29: 555-562 (1997)

Lee SJ, Lee KG. Understanding consumer preferences for rice wines using sensory data. J. Sci. Food Agri. 88: 690-698 (2008) crossref(new window)

Kwak HS, Ahn BH, Kim HR, Lee SY. Identification of sensory attributes that drive the likeability of Korean rice wines by American panelists. J. Food Sci. 80: 161-170 (2015) crossref(new window)

Kwak HS, Kim MS, Lee YS, Eon TK, Seo YJ, Shim HS, Ha SH, Ok HY, Jeong YH. Reduction of nuruk flavor in Korean rice-distilled liquor using $sumizyme^{TM}$. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 44: 928-934 (2015) crossref(new window)

Lee SJ, Ahn BH. Sensory profiling of rice wines made with nuruks using different ingredients. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 42: 119-123 (2010)

So MH. Characteristics of a modified nuruk made by inoculation of traditional nuruk microorganisms. Korean J. Food Nutr. 12: 219-225 (1999)

Atsushi M, Atsuko I, Hitoshi U, Hiroshi I. Identification of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) causing a musty/muddy off-flavor in sake and its production in rice koji and moromi mash. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 100: 178-183 (2015)

NTS. Analysis of liquor regulatory. National Tax Service. Sejong, Korea. pp. 41-42 (2009)

Chae SK, Kang KS, Ma SJ, Bang KY, Oh MH, Oh SH. Standard food analytics. Jigu, Seoul, Korea. pp. 460-463 (2009)

Hitachi High-Technologies Corporation. Amino acid analysis of beer. Available from: Accessed Jul. 29, 2015.

Brewing Society of Japan. Component of the alcoholic beverages. Shin nippon printing Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 50-62 (1999)

Atsuko I, Hitoshi U, Ryoko K, Hiroshi I. Change in the aroma compounds of sake during aging. J. Agr. Food Chem. 53: 4118-4123 (2005) crossref(new window)

Bae SM. Sake manufacturing technology. Design plus Co., Seoul, Korea. pp. 166-217, 268-273 (2008)

Bae SM. Traditional liquor manufacturing technology. Baesangmyeon Brewery Institute, Seoul, Korea. pp. 62-66 (2002)

Lee MK, Lee SW, Yoon TH. The bibliographical study on nuruk. J. East Asian Soc. Dietary Life 4: 19-29 (1994)

Kim KW, Kim JH, Noh BS, An BH, Yeo SH, Ji HC. Makgeolli and yakju; Science and application. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and rural affairs, Sejong, Korea. pp. 85-87 (2012)

Lee WK, Kim JR, Lee MW. Studies on the changes in free amino acids and organic acids of takju prepared with different koji strains. J. Korean Agric. Chem. Soc. 30: 323-327 (1987)

Lee TS, Han EH. Volatile flavor components in mash of takju prepared by using Rhizopus japonicus nuruks. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 32: 691-698 (2000)

Huh CK, Lee JW, Kim YD. Comparison of organic acids, fusel oil contents and antioxidant activities of yakju with the additions of various rice cultivars. Korean J. Food Preserv. 20: 365-371 (2013) crossref(new window)

Yoshizawa Y, Ishikawa TA, Tadenuma M, Nagasawa M, Nagami K. Eancyclopedia of brewing and fermentation food. Asakira publishing Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan. pp. 70-366 (2004)

Iwami T, Takamiya Y, Takaesu C, Nishia T. Change in sulfur compounds of Awamori during aging. J. Ferment. Technol. 64: 129-136 (1986) crossref(new window)

In HY, Lee TS, Lee DS, Noh BS. Volatile components and fusel oils of sojues and mashes brewed by Korean traditional method. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 27: 235-240 (1995)

Choi HS, Kang JE, Jeong ST, Kim CW, Kim MK. Changes observed in doenjang (soybean paste) with added fermented-Rhus verniciflua extract during aging. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 47: 599-607 (2015) crossref(new window)

Encyclopedia chimica. Kyolis Publishing & Printing Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 11, 110, 811, 847 (1964).

Atsuko I. Aroma compounds in aging sake. Bioengineering 89: 720-723 (2011)