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Anti-inflammatory Activities of Fermented Black Garlic
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 Title & Authors
Anti-inflammatory Activities of Fermented Black Garlic
Tak, Hyun-Min; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Kang, Dawon; Han, Sunkyu; Shin, Jung-Hye;
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In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermented black garlic (FBG) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. FBG did not show cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells at concentrations less than , and cell viability increased with FBG concentration. Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin () production as well as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-), interleukin- (IL-) and IL-6 formation decreased in an FBG concentration-dependent manner, in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, activation of LPS-inducible nitric synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-), and inhibitory kappa B () protein expression was effectively inhibited by FBG treatment in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. In contrast, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression significantly increased. These results indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity of FBG was due to activation of NF-, inhibition of cytokine production, and expression of iNOS and COX-2. From these results, we expect that FBG could contribute to the prevention and improvement of inflammatory disease.
fermented black garlic (FBG);cytokine;anti-inflammatory;RAW 264.7 cells;
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