Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Changes in Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities according to Different Harvest Times in Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Changes in Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities according to Different Harvest Times in Black Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Park, Ji-Young; Han, Sang-Ik; Hur, Yeon-jae; Lee, Yu-Young; Lee, Byung-Won; Sim, Eun-Yeong; Ham, Hyeonmi; Kim, Byeong-Ju; Lee, Chun-Woo; Lee, Sung-Joon; Oh, Sung-Hwan;
  PDF(new window)
This study compared physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities according to different harvest times in five varieties of black rice (BR). Five cultivars of BR, Nunkeunheukchal (NKHC), Sinnongheugchal (SNHC), Sintoheugmi (STHM), Josaengheugchal (JSHC), and Heugjinju (HJJ), were selected for the study. Cultivars were transplanted on June 20th and cultivated by the Department of Southern Area Crop Science, NICS in Miryang, Korea. Heading dates of NKHC, SNHC, STHM, JSHC, and HJJ were Aug. 17th, Aug. 30th, Sep. 1st, Aug. 20th, and Aug. 12th, respectively. The five different harvest times were as follows; 35, 40, 45, 50, and 55 days after heading date. The highest level of anthocyanin was 35 days after heading date in all varieties. Levels of anthocyanin in NKHC, SNHC, STHM, JSHC, and HJJ were 164, 203, 251, 67, and 210 mg/100 g, respectively. Content of anthocyanin significantly decreased 35 days after heading in four varieties, excluding JSHC. Highest DPPH values were 57, 29, 10, and in NKHC, SN HC, STHM, and JSHC extracts, respectively. Highest ABTS values were 24, 13, 9, and in NKHC, SNHC, STHM, and JSHC extracts, respectively. The antioxidant activities were highest 35 days after the heading date and significantly decreased in four varieties, excluding HJJ. The antioxidant activity of HJJ showed no significant difference, according to harvest time. This study suggests that the content of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity could be considered as factors affecting optimal harvest period to produce highly qualified black rice.
black rice;harvest times;anthocyanin;antioxidant activity;polyphenol;
 Cited by
Choi SW, Kang WW, Osawa T. 1994. Isolation and identification of anthocyanin pigments in black rice. Foods and Biotechnology 3: 131-136.

Oh GS, Kim K, Na HS, Choi GC. 2002. Comparison of physicochemical properties on waxy black rice and glutinous rice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 31: 12-16. crossref(new window)

Cho EH, Choi MJ, Shin SH, Kim HY. 2012. Antioxidant activity of black rice and grains. CNU Journal of Agricultural Science 39: 511-514. crossref(new window)

Defa G, Meiyu X. 1992. A study on special nutrient of purple glutinous rice. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 25: 36-41.

Ryu SN, Han SJ, Park SZ, Kim HR. 2006. Antioxidant activity of blackish purple rice. Korean J Crop Sci 51: 173-178.

Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD. 1998. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J Agric Food Chem 46: 4113-4117. crossref(new window)

Ling WH, Wang LL, Ma J. 2002. Supplementation of the black rice outer layer fraction to rabbits decreases atherosclerotic plaque formation and increases antioxidant status. J Nutr 132: 20-26.

Chung YA, Lee JK. 2003. Antioxidative properties of phenolic compounds extracted from black rice. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 32: 948-951. crossref(new window)

Chen PN, Kuo WH, Chiang CL, Chiou HL, Hsieh YS, Chu SC. 2006. Black rice anthocyanins inhibit cancer cells invasion via repressions of MMPs and u-PA expression. Chem Biol Interact 163: 218-229. crossref(new window)

Chiang AN, Wu HL, Yeh HI, Chu CS, Lin HC, Lee WC. 2006. Antioxidant effects of black rice extract through the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Lipids 41: 797-803. crossref(new window)

Lee SH, Hwang IG, Kim HY, Lee HK, Lee SH, Woo SH, Lee J, Jeong HS. 2010. Physicochemical property and antioxidant activity of Daehak waxy corns with different harvest times. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 39: 719-724. crossref(new window)

Choi SR, Kim CS, Kim JY, You DH, Kim JM, Kim YS, Song EJ, Kim YG, Ahn YS, Choi DG. 2011. Changes of antioxidant activity and lignan contents in Schisandra chinensis by harvesting times. Korean J Medicinal Crop Sci 19: 414-420. crossref(new window)

Moon GS, Ryu BM, Lee MJ. 2003. Components and antioxidative activities of buchu (Chinese chives) harvested at different times. Korean J Food Sci Technol 35: 493-498.

Chae JC, Jun DK. 2002. Effect of harvest time on yield and quality of rice. Korean J Crop Sci 47: 254-258.

Song YC, Lee JS, Ha WG, Hwang HG, Lim SJ, Yeo US, Park NB, Kwak DY, Jang JK, Lee JH, Park DS, Jung KH, Jeong EK, Nam MH, Kim YD, Kim MK, Kwon OK, Oh BG. 2010. A new early maturing blackish purple pigmented glutinous rice variety, 'Josaengheugchal'. Korean J Breed Sci 42: 262-266.

Park DS, Hwang UH, Park SK, Lee JH, Han SI, Cho JH, Lee JY, Oh SH, Jang KC, Seo WD, Shin DJ, Kim SY, Song YC, Yeo US, Park NB, Nam MH, Lee JK. 2015. A waxy black giant embryo earley maturing rice variety 'Nunkeunheugchal'. Korean J Breed Sci 47: 68-74. crossref(new window)

Moon HP, Choi YG, Lee JH, Jung KH, Cho SY, Hwang HG, Kang KH, Kim MK, Hwang KH, Choi HC, Kim YS. 1998. A new early maturing, anthocyanin pigmented rice variety "Heugjinjubyeo". Korean J Breed Sci 30: 383-383.

Kim DO, Chun OK, Kim YJ, Moon HY, Lee CY. 2003. Quantification of polyphenolics and their antioxidant activity in fresh plums. J Agric Food Chem 51: 6509-6515. crossref(new window)

Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. 1999. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 64: 555-559. crossref(new window)

Kim YD, Ha KY, Lee KB, Shin HT, Cho SY. 1998. Varietal variation of anthocyanin content and physicochemical properties in color rice. Korean J Breed 30: 305-308.

Kim JH, Park JH, Park SD, Choi SY, Seong JH, Moon KD. 2002. Preparation and antioxidant activity of health drink with extract powders from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seed. Korean J Food Sci Technol 34: 617-624.

Dewanto V, Wu X, Liu RH. 2002. Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem 50: 4959- 4964. crossref(new window)

Joo YH, Park JH, Kim YH, Chung MG, Chung KW. 2004. Change in anthocyanin contents by cultivation and harvest time in black-seeded soybean. Korean J Crop Sci 49: 512-515.

Hwang HR, Kim KH, Lee J, Chung CT, Lee JC, Choi JJ, Chun JP, Yook HS. 2009. Comparison of mineral contents of three rice varieties under different cultural practices. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 38: 721-726. crossref(new window)

Chae JC, Lee DJ, Jun DK, Ryu SN. 2003. Effect of ripening temperature on anthocyanin cyanidin-3-glucoside contents of pigmented rice variety Heugjinjubyeo. Abstract No PD25 presented at Spring Meeting of The Korean Society of Breeding Science. Jeju, Korea.

Chung CT. 2008. Variation of grain shape of brown rice and its physicochemical characteristics of colored rice (Oryza sativa L.) as affected by cultural conditions. PhD Dissertation. Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

Cho MH, Yoon HH, Hahn TR. 1996. Thermal stability of the major color component, cyanidin 3-glucoside, from a Korean pigmented rice variety in aqueous solution. Agric Chem Biotechnol 39: 245-248.

Yoon JM, Cho MH, Hahn TR, Paik YS, Yoon HH. 1997. Physicochemical stability of anthocyanins from a Korean pigmented rice variety as natural food colorants. Korean J Food Sci Technol 29: 211-217.

Kim YH, Lee YJ, Park SO, Lee SJ, Lee OH. 2013. Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activities of fermented black rice and its fractions. Korean J Food Sci Technol 45: 262-266. crossref(new window)