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Comparison of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Naturally-Fermented Commercial Rice Vinegars Produced in Korea, China, and Japan
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Comparison of Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activities of Naturally-Fermented Commercial Rice Vinegars Produced in Korea, China, and Japan
Chung, Namhyeok; Jo, Yunhee; Gao, Yaping; Gu, Song-Yi; Jeong, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Joong-Ho;
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Rice vinegar (RV) is primarily made from fermented rice or rice wine in Korea, China, and Japan. Ten commercially available naturally-fermented rice vinegars produced in Korea (KRV1~4), China (CRV1~2), and Japan (JRV1~4) were comparatively investigated for their physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities. KRV showed a significantly higher total acidity range (5.07~6.27) than both CRV (4.67~4.84) and JRV (4.64~4.84). These acidity ranges corresponded with respective standards of each country: Korea (Food Code), China (GB), and Japan (JAS). Six different organic acids were detected in RVs; acetic acid and succinic acid were the most prominent. Thirty different amino acids were detected in RVs, and main identified amino acids were alanine (KRV), phenylalanine and aspartic acid (CRV), and leucine and alanine (JRV). acid was detected at high concentration in KRV1. KRV1 showed maximum total phenolic content, and DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of samples were also determined with significantly increasing tendency. KRV1 (produced from brown rice with aging period of >1 year) exhibited the highest free amino acid content and antioxidant activity as compared to CRV and JRV.
rice vinegar;natural fermentation;organic acid;free amino acid;antioxidant activity;
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