Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Foodservice Employee's Hand Hygiene Improvement according to Food Safety Education
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Foodservice Employee's Hand Hygiene Improvement according to Food Safety Education
Cho, Hyun-Ok; Bae, Hyun-Joo;
  PDF(new window)
The purpose of this study was to analyze the personal hygiene status of foodservice employees as well as microbiological counts of their hands according to food safety education. A survey was conducted for employees who worked at five foodservice facilities, and the results of the survey were assessed using the SAS program (ver. 9.3). A total of 20 employees' hands were sampled to analyze aerobic plate counts (APCs), coliforms counts (CCs), and Staphylococcus aureus. The food safety education program was composed of four education sessions, including microbiological evaluation of employees' hands. According to the survey results, all employees wore a sanitary uniform, hair cap, and shoes. However, 96% of employees used the restroom wearing sanitary shoes, whereas just 20% of them washed their hands using the standard method. Additionally, employees washed hands after using the restroom (100%), before using single-use gloves (76%), after eating (76%). The results of the microbiological hazards analysis of foodservice employees' hands showed that the average numbers of APCs and CCs before cooking were 5.53 log CFU/hand and 2.95 log CFU/hand respectively, whereas the average numbers of APCs and CCs while cooking at foodservice facilities were 6.49 log CFU/hand and 3.29 log CFU/hand, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 10% of their hands before cooking and 5% of their hands while cooking. The average numbers of APCs and CCs were significantly reduced before cooking as well as while cooking, and Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in any of the samples as the frequency of food safety education increased. In conclusion, this study shows that it is necessary for foodservice employees to regularly participate in food safety education with effective instruments in order to improve their hygiene level.
foodservice employee;personal hygiene;food safety education;microbiological evaluation;foodservice facility;
 Cited by
Altekruse SF, Cohen ML, Swerdlow DL. 1997. Emerging foodborne diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 3: 285-293. crossref(new window)

Bae HJ, Chun HJ. 2003. Microbiological hazard analysis of cooking utensils and working areas of foodservice establishments and hygienic improvement by implementing HACCP system. Korean J Soc Food Cookery Sci 19: 231-240.

Ministry of Food and Drugs Safety. 2015. Statistics of foodborne illness outbreaks. Available from: (accessed Oct 2015).

Bae HJ, Paik JE, Joo NM, Yoon JY. 2012. HACCP principles and applications for foodservice managers. Kyomunsa, Paju, Korea. p 27-38,85-86.

Bae HJ. 2006. Analysis of contamination of bacteria from raw materials, utensils and workers' hands to prepared foods in foodservice operations. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 35: 655-660. crossref(new window)

Allwood PB, Jenkins T, Paulus C, Johnson L, Hedberg CW. 2004. Hand washing compliance among retail food establishment workers in Minnesota. J Food Prot 67: 2825-2828.

Walker E, Pritchard C, Forsythe S. 2003. Food handlers' hygiene knowledge in small food business. Food Control 14: 339-343. crossref(new window)

Chang HW, Bae HJ. 2010. Assessment of food sanitation knowledge and performance of food service workers in school food service operations implementing HACCP. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 26: 781-790.

Park HJ, Bae HJ. 2006. Evaluation of microbiological hazards of hygiene by the customers' hands in university foodservice operation. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 35: 940-944. crossref(new window)

Kang YJ. 2001. Handwashing, essential for safe food preparation; a technical review. J Korean Public Health Assoc 27: 269-276.

Lee YE. 2006. A study on the perception and practice of sanitation training program at school foodservice operations in Chungbuk province. J Korean Diet Assoc 12: 69-81.

Hong WS, Yim JM, Choi YS. 2008. Sanitary performance and knowledge of elementary school foodservice employees in Seoul. J Korean Diet Assoc 14: 382-395.

Kim GM, Lee SY. 2009. Analysis of the school foodservice facilities & sanitary education (Seoul, Gyeonggi, Kangwon and Choongchung areas in Korea). Korean J Community Nutr 14: 576-589.

Park SH, Jung HA, Bae HJ, Joo N. 2009. A study on differences of sanitation education and sanitation knowledge between dietitians in school foodservice and managers in commercial foodservice. Korean J Community Nutr 14: 306-315.

Kim DJ, Kim GJ. 2010. A study on moderating effect of sanitation education in relationship between sanitation knowledge and sanitation management performance of culinary employees. Korean J Culinary Res 16: 291-307.

Lee JY, Yon M, Lee YJ, Kim WJ. 2011. Culinary employees' sanitation management practice levels according to dietitians' sanitation training performance in the institutional foodservice industry in the Chungbuk province. Korean J Food Culture 26: 151-158.

Lim JH, Kim HA, Jung HY. 2013. A study on the hygiene practices of foodservice employees by hygiene education and work environment in the Gyeongnam area. J Korean Diet Assoc 19: 209-222. crossref(new window)

Chung JK, Kim MJ, Kee HY, Choi MH, Seo JJ, Kim SH, Park JT, Kim MG, Kim E. 2008. Prevalence of food poisoning bacteria on hands in various age groups. J Fd Hyg Safety 23: 40-50.

Kim JB, Hur ES, Kang SH, Kim DH, Do YS, Park PH, Park YB, Yoon MH, Lee JB. 2012. Prevalence of microbiological hazard on nursery school children's hands and effect of hand washing education. J Fd Hyg Safety 27: 30-36. crossref(new window)

Kim JK, Park JY, Kim JS. 2011. A comparison of microbial load on bare and gloved hands among food handlers. J Environ Health Sci 37: 298-305.

Lyu ES. 1999. Food sanitary procedures of employees in business and industry foodservice operations of Pusan and Kyung Nam. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 28: 942-947.

Kim JG. 2000. Evaluation of the management of sanitation in food service establishments in Korea and strategies for future improvement. J Fd Hyg Safety 15: 186-198.

Paulson DS. 1993. Evaluation of three microorganism recovery procedures used to determine handwash efficacy. Dairy Food Environ Sanit 13: 520-523.

Korean Food and Drug Administration. 2015. Korean food code. Available from: (accessed Jul 2015).

Lee KE, Ryu K. 2004. Influences of school food service employees' food safety training on food safety knowledge and practices. Korean J Community Nutr 9: 597-605.

Kye SH, Moon HK, Chung HR, Hwang SH, Kim WS. 1996. A study for the improvement of sanitary condition in Korean style-restaurant in Seoul city area (II) -Evaluation on sanitary management of cooking equipment and personal hygiene-. Korean J Dietary Culture 10: 1-10.

Korean Food and Drug Administration. 2014. Sanitation management manual for foodservice establishments in Korea. Available from: (accessed Oct 2015).

Ecodaily News. 2011. 1830 handwashing campaign in Seoul. Available from: (accessed Oct 2015).

Longree K, Armbruster G. 1996. Quantity food sanitation. 5th ed. John Wiley and Son, Inc., New York, NY, USA. p 228.

Lee HY, Chang HW, Bae HJ. 2011. Importance-performance analysis about sanitation management items performed by school food service workers. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 27: 21-31.

Kwak TK, Chang HJ, Ryu K, Kim SH. 1998. Effectiveness of 70% alcohol solution and hand washing methods on removing transient skin bacteria in foodservice operation. J Korean Diet Assoc 4: 235-244.

Bryan FL. 1996. Hazard analysis: the link between epidemiology and microbiology. J Food Prot 59: 102-107.