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Major Dishes Contributing Absolute and Between-Person Sodium Intake Variations in University Students in Gyeonggi-do
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 Title & Authors
Major Dishes Contributing Absolute and Between-Person Sodium Intake Variations in University Students in Gyeonggi-do
Chung, Eun-Jung; Ryu, Ha-Jung; Shim, Eugene;
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The objective of this study was to investigate dietary sodium sources at the dish level in 228 university students (71 men, 157 women) in Gyeonggi-do. Daily sodium intake was estimated from a validated 125-dish frequency questionnaire. In men, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and sodium intake were significantly higher than in women. Men showed higher sodium intake from soups, fish or shellfish dishes, meat dishes, and soybean dishes than women. The dishes that most largely contributed to daily sodium intake were Napa cabbage kimchi and ramen in both men and women. In addition, relatively higher amounts of sodium from ramen were consumed in men, whereas cookies were the 5th highest sodium source in women. In both men and women, the high sodium intake groups consumed more sodium from kimchi, dishes cooked with kimchi, dishes with broth, and salted mackerel than the low sodium intake group. There were significant differences in major dishes contributing to between-person sodium intake variations between men and women. Short rib soup for men and Korean sausage for women were the largest contributors to sodium variations, which are common dishes served with salt. Men consumed more drinks and also more sodium from drinks than women. In conclusion, there were significant differences in major dishes contributing to absolute and between-person sodium intake variations in university students between men and women. Further studies on effects of gender on blood pressure, sodium and drink intake, and obesity are necessary.
dish frequency questionnaire;dietary sodium source;between-person variation;sodium intake;university student;
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