Publisher : The Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
DOI : 10.3746/jkfn.2016.45.4.551
Title & Authors
Effects of NaCl Concentration on Physicochemical Properties of Pork Emulsion Park, Sin-Young; Kim, Hack-Youn;
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of NaCl concentration on the physicochemical properties of pork emulsion. Pork emulsion was produced containing 0% (control), 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5% NaCl. Proximate composition of pork emulsion containing 1.5% NaCl showed the highest moisture content (P<0.05). The ash contents of pork emulsion increased with an increase in NaCl, and protein contents decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. The pH levels of uncooked pork emulsion containing 0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5% NaCl were lower than those of other treatments (P<0.05), and the pH level of cooked pork emulsion containing NaCl was lower than that of the control (P<0.05). The CIE value of the uncooked pork emulsion samples containing NaCl was higher than that of the control (P<0.05), whereas CIE and CIE values of samples with NaCl were lower than the control (P<0.05). CIE and CIE values of cooked pork emulsion decreased with an increase in NaCl level, and CIE value increased with increasing NaCl concentration (P<0.05). Viscosity of the pork emulsion increased with an increase in NaCl. Texture profile analysis of pork emulsion containing NaCl showed no significant difference in springiness or cohesiveness (P>0.05). Pork emulsion containing 1.5% NaCl showed the highest hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (P<0.05). These results suggest that pork emulsion containing 0.9% and 1.2% NaCl can be used as a low-salt meat product.
Korea Meat Industries Association. Information of meat products sales statistics. http://www.kmia.or.kr/infocenter/Cata1_02.html (accessed Nov 2015).
Kim HC, Kim MR. 2005. Consumer attitudes towards food additives. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life 15: 126-135.
Cho IC, Bratzler LJ. 1970. Effect of sodium nitrite on flavor of cured pork. J Food Sci 35: 668-670.
Seong PN, Kim JH, Cho SH, Lee CH, Kang DW, Hah KH, Lim DG, Park BY, Kim DH, Lee JM, Ahn CN. 2008. The effects of salt and $NaNO_2$ on physico-chemical characteristics of dry-cured ham. Korean J Food Sci Ani Resour 28: 493-498.
Andres AI, Ventanas S, Ventanas J, Cava R, Ruiz J. 2005. Physicochemical changes throughout the ripening of dry cured hams with different salt content and processing conditions. Eur Food Res Technol 221: 30-35.
Ruusunen M, Puolanne E. 2005. Reducing sodium intake from meat products. Meat Sci 70: 531-541.
de Wardener HE, Macgregor GA. 2002. Harmful effects of dietary salt in addition to hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 16: 213-223.
Grunert KG. 2006. Future trends and consumer lifestyles with regard to meat consumption. Meat Sci 74: 149-160.
Desmond E. 2006. Reducing salt: a challenge for the meat industry. Meat Sci 74: 188-196.
Moon SS, Kim YT, Jin SK, Kim IS. 2008. Effects of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate on the physico-chemical properties and sensory characteristics of sodium-reduced pork patties. Korean J Food Sci Ani Resour 28: 567-573.
Gelabert J, Gou P, Guerrero L, Arnau J. 2003. Effect of sodium chloride replacement on some characteristics of fermented sausages. Meat Sci 65: 833-839.
Ruusunen M, Vainionpaa J, Lyly M, Lahteenmaki L, Niemisto M, Ahvenainen R, Puolanne E. 2005. Reducing the sodium content in meat products: The effect of the formulation in low-sodium ground meat patties. Meat Sci 69: 53-60.
Matulis RJ, Mckeith FK, Sutherland JW, Brewer MS. 1995. Sensory characteristics of frankfurters as affected by fat, salt, and pH. J Food Sci 60: 42-47.
AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA. p 777-788.
Grau R, Hamm R. 1953. Eine einfache methode zur bestimmung der wasserbindung im muskel. Naturwissenschaften 40: 29-30.
Kim CJ, Hwang KE, Song DH, Jeong TJ, Kim HW, Kim YB, Jeon KH, Choi YS. 2015. Optimization for reduced-fat/low-NaCl meat emulsion systems with sea mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and phosphate. Korean J Food Sci An 35: 515-523.
Jimenez-Colmenero F, Fernandez P, Carballo J, Fernandez-Martin F. 1998. High-pressure-cooked low-fat pork and chicken batters as affected by salt levels and cooking temperature. J Food Sci 63: 656-659.
Gimeno O, Astiasaran I, Bello J. 2001. Calcium ascorbate as a potential partial substitute for NaCl in dry fermented sausages: effect on colour, texture and hygienic quality at different concentrations. Meat Sci 57: 23-29.
Arnau J, Guerrero L, Sarraga C. 1998. The effect of green ham pH and NaCl concentration on cathepsin activities and the sensory characteristics of dry-cured hams. J Sci Food Agric 77: 387-392.
Kim HW, Hwang KE, Song DH, Kim YJ, Ham YK, Yeo EJ, Jeong TJ, Choi YS, Kim CJ. 2015. Effect of pre-rigor salting levels on physicochemical and textural properties of chicken breast muscles. Korean J Food Sci An 35: 577-584.
Ruusunen M, Vainionpaa J, Puolanne E, Lyly M, Lähteenmäki L, Niemisto M, Ahvenainen R. 2003. Physical and sensory properties of low-salt phosphate-free frankfurters composed with various ingredients. Meat Sci 63: 9-16.
Puolanne EJ, Ruusunen MH, Vainiopaa JI. 2001. Combined effects of NaCl and raw meat pH on water-holding in cooked sausage with and without added phosphate. Meat Sci 58: 1-7.
Hand LW, Hollingsworth CA, Calkins CR, Mandigo RW. 1987. Effects of preblending, reduced fat and salt levels on frankfurter characteristics. J Food Sci 52: 1149-1151.
Honikel KO. 2008. The use and control of nitrate and nitrite for the processing of meat products. Meat Sci 78: 68-76.
Ruusunen M, Vainionpaa J, Puolanne E, Lyly M, Lahteenmaki L, Niemisto M, Ahvenainen R. 2003. Effect of sodium citrate, carboxymethyl cellulose and carrageenan levels on quality characteristics of low-salt and low-fat bologna type sausages. Meat Sci 64: 371-381.
Whiting RC. 1984. Stability and gel strength of frankfurter batters made with reduced NaCl. J Food Sci 49: 1350-1354.
Kim HY, Lee ES, Jeong JY, Choi JH, Choi YS, Han DJ, Lee MA, Kim SY, Kim CJ. 2010. Effect of bamboo salt on the physicochemical properties of meat emulsion systems. Meat Sci 86: 960-965.
Barbut S, Mittal GS. 1990. Effect of heating rate on meat batter stability, texture and gelation. J Food Sci 55: 334-337.
Seman DL, Olson DG, Mandigo RW. 1980. Effect of reduction and partial replacement of sodium on bologna characteristics and acceptability. J Food Sci 45: 1116-1121.