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Effects of Poly-Gamma Glutamate Contents Cheonggukjang on Osteoblast Differentiation
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 Title & Authors
Effects of Poly-Gamma Glutamate Contents Cheonggukjang on Osteoblast Differentiation
Lee, Ki Ho; Sim, Mi-Ok; Song, Yong Su; Jung, Ho Kyung; Jang, Ji-Hun; Kim, Min-Suk; Kim, Tae Mook; Lee, Hyo Eun; An, Byeong-Kwan; Jung, Won Seok;
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Cheonggukjang (CKJ) is a Korean traditional food made of fermented soybeans. In comparison to normal intake of soybeans, Cheonggukjang has high digestibility with bioactive, antioxidant substances, and thrombolytic enzymes. Recent studies have reported anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity activities as well as inhibitory activities against osteoporosis for CKJ. In this study, we identified the effects of CKJ on osteoblast differentiation by increasing the polyglutamic acid (PGA) content of CKJ. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization significantly increased in response to treatment with both natural CKJ (CKJ A) and PGA-increased CKJ (CKJ B). However, CKJ B exhibited higher ALP activity and mineralization than CKJ A. Real-time reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that mRNA expression of osteoblastic-associated genes such as type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and osteopontin in C2C12 cells was significantly up-regulated by CKJ A or B treatment. These results indicate that treatment with CKJ has an anabolic effect on bone by increasing osteoblastic differentiation and ALP activity. Increasing PGA content in CKJ had a greater effect than CKJ A on up-regulation of osteoblastic gene expression in osteoblast cells.
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