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Inhibitory Effects of Spinach, Cabbage, and Onion Extracts on Growth of Cancer Cells
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 Title & Authors
Inhibitory Effects of Spinach, Cabbage, and Onion Extracts on Growth of Cancer Cells
Lee, Hae-Nim; Shin, Seong-Ah; Choo, Gang-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Park, Young-Seok; Kim, Sang-Ki; Jung, Ji-Youn;
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Extracts from spinach, cabbage, and onion are known to possess various instructive characteristics, including antioxidant and anti-inflammation activities. Spinach, cabbage, and onion are consumed worldwide and represent important sources of dietary phytochemicals with proven antioxidant properties, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids. Food-derived flavonoids and phenolic compounds are expected to be promising drugs for cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of methanol extracts of spinach, cabbage, and onion on cell proliferation and apoptosis in human gastric and breast cancer cells. Proliferation rates of AGS, MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The methanol extracts of spinach, cabbage, and onion inhibited proliferation of cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining revealed that chromatin condensation significantly increased compared with the control. In the results of MTT assay and DAPI staining, onion extract was the most effective in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. To assess changes in protein expression level by onion extract, we identified Bax (pro-apoptotic), Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic), and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein by western blot analysis. The expression of Bax and cleaved-PARP increased, whereas expression of Bcl-2 was decreased compared with the control. These results suggest that spinach, cabbage, and onion extracts suppressed growth of human gastric cancer AGS, human breast cancer MDA-MB-231, and SK-BR-3 cells through induction of apoptosis. Among the extracts, onion extract had stronger anti-cancer and apoptosis induction effects than spinach and cabbage extracts. Further, onion extract more effectively induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells than human breast cancer cells. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the anti-cancer effects of onion extracts in vivo. Onion extract can be developed as a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for gastric cancer.
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