Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Changes in Biological Qualities of Soy Grits Cheonggukjang by Fermentation with β-Glucosidase-Producing Bacillus Strains
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Changes in Biological Qualities of Soy Grits Cheonggukjang by Fermentation with β-Glucosidase-Producing Bacillus Strains
Lee, Kyung Ha; Choi, Hye Sun; Hwang, Kyung A; Song, Jin;
  PDF(new window)
The bioactivity of soy grits cheonggukjang was enhanced by fermentation using three -glucosidase-producing Bacillus subtilis strains (HJ 18-9, HJ 25-8, and HJ 18-9+HJ 25-8) for 48 h at . The results indicate that protease, cellulase, and a-amylase activities significantly increased (P<0.05) with increasing fermentation time. In addition, the amino-type nitrogen content of B. subtilis-fermented soy grits cheonggukjang increased to 91.0~168.0 mg% after 48 h of fermentation. Among the isoflavones in soy grits cheonggukjang, contents of -glucosides or acetyl-glucosides were reduced while aglycone content increased upon fermentation. In particular, soy grits cheonggukjang fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-9 and HJ25-8 showed the largest increases in aglycone content compared to complex treatment. These results provide useful information for development starter (single and complex) as well as for production of high quality fermented soybean food.
soybean;soy grits;isoflavone;Bacillus;
 Cited by
Kim DH, Lim DW, Bai S, Chun SB. 1997. Fermentation characteristics of whole soybean meju model system inoculated with 4 Bacillus strains. Korean J Food Sci Technol 29: 1006-1015.

Youn KC, Kim DH, Kim JO, Park BJ, Yook HS, Cho JM, Byun MW. 2002. Quality characteristics of the chungkookjang fermented by the mixed culture of Bacillus natto and B. licheniformis. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 31: 201-210.

Brouns F. 2002. Soya isoflavones: a new and promising ingredient for the health foods sector. Food Res Int 35: 187-193. crossref(new window)

Setchell KDR, Borriello SP, Hulme P, Kirk DN, Axelson M. 1984. Nonsteroidal estrogens of dietary origin: possible roles in hormone-dependent disease. Am J Clin Nutr 40: 569-578.

Kim IB, Shin S, Lim BL, Seong G, Lee YE. 2010. Bioconversion of soybean isoflavone by Lactobacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium longum. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 26: 214-219.

Setchell KDR, Brown NM, Desai P, Zimmer-Nechemias L, Wolfe BE, Brashear WT, Kirschner AS, Cassidy A, Heubi JE. 2001. Bioavailability of pure isoflavones in healthy humans and analysis of commercial soy isoflavone supplements. J Nutr 131: 1362S-1375S.

Yeo KE, Kim WJ. 2002. Effects of acid hydrolysis on isoflavone of defatted soybean flour. Korean J Food Sci Technol 34: 916-918.

Choi YB, Woo JG, Noh WS. 1999. Hydrolysis of ${\beta}$-glycosidic bonds of isoflavone conjugates in the lactic acid fermentation of soy milk. Korean J Food Sci Technol 31: 189-195.

Son DH, Kwon OJ, Ji WD, Choi UK, Kwon OJ, Lee EJ, Cho YJ, Cha WS, Chung YG. 2000. The quality changes of chungugjang prepared with Bacillus sp. CS-17 during fermentation time. J Korean Soc Agric Chem Biotechnol 43: 1-6.

Hwang JS, Kim SJ, Kim HB. 2009. Antioxidant and bloodpressure reduction effects of fermented soybean, Chungkookjang. Kor J Microbiol 45: 54-57.

Ko JA, Koo SY, Park HJ. 2008. Effects of alginate microencapsulation on the fibrinolytic activity of fermented soybean paste (Cheonggukjang) extract. Food Chem 111: 921-924. crossref(new window)

Sohn BH, Song YJ, Oh KH. 2008. Fibrinolytic activity and characterization of Bacillus licheniformis HK-12 isolated from Chungkook-jang. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng 23: 251-256.

Shon MY, Seo KI, Lee SW, Choi SH, Sung NJ. 2000. Biological activities of chungkugjang prepared with black bean and changes in phytoestrogen content during fermentation. Korean J Food Sci Technol 32: 936-941.

Lee BY, Kim DM, Kim KH. 1991. Studies on the change in rheological properties of chungkook-jang. Korean J Food Sci Technol 23: 478-484.

Seok YR, Kim YH, Kim S, Woo HS, Kim TW, Lee SH, Choi C. 1994. Change of protein and amino acid composition during chungkook-jang fermentation using Bacillus licheniformis CN-115. Agric Chem Biotechnol 37: 65-71.

Izumi T, Piskula MK, Osawa S, Obata A, Tobe K, Saito M, Kataoka S, Kubota Y, Kikuchi M. 2000. Soy isoflavone aglycones are absorbed faster and in higher amounts than their glucosides in humans. J Nutr 130: 1695-1699.

Shon MY, Seo KI, Park SK, Cho YS, Sung NJ. 2001. Some biological activities and isoflavone content of chungkugjang prepared with black beans and Bacillus strains. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 30: 662-667.

Lee SY, Kim JY, Baek SY, Yeo SH, Koo BS, Park HY, Choi HS. 2011. Isolation and characterization of oligotrophic strains with high enzyme activity from buckwheat sokseongjang. Korean J Food Sci Technol 43: 735-741. crossref(new window)

Yoon KS. 1998. Changes of enzymatic activities during the fermentation food soybean-soypaste by Aspergillus spp. MS Thesis. Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.

Lee SY, Eom JS, Choi HS. 2014. Quality characteristics of fermented soybean products by Bacillus sp. isolated from traditional soybean paste. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 43: 756-762. crossref(new window)

Choi YB, Kim KS, Rhee JS. 2002. Hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glucosides by lactic acid bacteria. Biotechnol Lett 24: 2113-2116. crossref(new window)

Chae SK, Kang GS, Ma SJ, Bang KY, Oh MH, Oh SH. 2000. Standard food analytics. Jigu Publishing Co., Seoul, Korea. p 299-301.

Weatherburn MW. 1967. Phenol-hypochlorite reaction for determination of ammonia. Anal Chem 39: 971-974. crossref(new window)

Uzzan M, Labuza TP. 2004. Critical issue in R&D of soy isoflavone-enriched foods and dietary supplements. J Food Sci 69: 77-86.

Wang G, Kuan SS, Francis OJ, Ware GM, Carman AS. 1990. A simplified HPLC method for the determination of phytoestrogens in soybean and its processed products. J Agric Food Chem 38: 185-190. crossref(new window)

Park JS, Lee MY, Lee TS. 1995. Compositions of sugars and fatty acids in soybean paste (Doenjang) prepared with different microbial sources. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 24: 917-924.

Oh HI, Eom SM. 2008. Changes in microflora and enzyme activities of cheonggukjang prepared with germinated soybeans during fermentation. Korean J Food Sci Technol 40: 56-62.

Lee KH, Choi HS, Hwang KA, Song J. 2015. Changes in isoflavone content and quality characteristics of Cheonggukjang prepared by some different strains. Korean J Int Agric 27: 481-488. crossref(new window)

Song J, Lee KH, Choi HS, Hwang KA. 2015. Bioactive compounds of Cheonggukjang prepared by different soybean cultivars with Bacillus subtilis HJ18-9. Korean J Food Preserv 22: 535-544. crossref(new window)

Lee MY, Park SY, Jung KO, Park KY, Kim SD. 2005. Quality and functional characteristics of chungkukjang prepared with various Bacillus sp. isolated from traditional chungkukjang. J Food Sci 70: M191-M196.

Ra KS, Oh SH, Kim JM, Suh HJ. 2004. Isolation of fibrinolytic enzyme and ${\beta}$-glucosidase producing strains from Doenjang and optimum conditions of enzyme production. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 33: 439-442. crossref(new window)

Ryu BH. 2003. Development of functional doenjang for antioxidative and fibrinolytic activity. J Life Sci 13: 559-568. crossref(new window)

Yoo SK, Cho WH, Kang SM, Lee SH. 1999. Isolation and identification of microorganisms in Korean traditional soybean paste and soybean sauce. Kor J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 27: 113-117.

Lee KH, Kim EJ, Choi HS, Park SY, Kim JH, Song J. 2015. Quality characteristics of popped rice Doenjang prepared with Bacillus subtilis strains. Korean J Food Preserv 22: 545-552. crossref(new window)

Ewe JA, Wan-Abdullah WN, Alias AK, Liong MT. 2013. Ultraviolet radiation enhanced growth of lactobacilli and their bioconversion of isoflavones in biotin-supplemented soymilk. LWT - Food Sci Technol 50: 25-31. crossref(new window)

Marazza JA, Nazareno MA, de Giori GS, Garro MS. 2013. Bioactive action of ${\beta}$-glucosidase enzyme of Bifidobacterium longum upon isoflavone glucosides present in soymilk. Int J Food Sci Technol 48: 2480-2489. crossref(new window)

Kim KW, Chun BS. 2001. Optimum conversion to the aglycone form using ${\beta}$-glucosidase and isoflavone extraction from soybean. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng 16: 174-178.

Yang S, Wang L, Yan Q, Jiang Z, Li L. 2009. Hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone glycosides by a thermostable ${\beta}$-glucosidase from Paecilomyces thermophila. Food Chem 115: 1247-1252. crossref(new window)

Hong SW, Kim JY, Lee BK, Chung KS. 2006. The bacterial biological response modifier enriched Chungkookjang fermentation. Korean J Food Sci Technol 38: 548-553.

Ko TG, Kim JD, Bae SH, Han YK, Han IK. 2000. Study for the development of antibiotics-free diet for weanling pigs. Kor J Anim Sci 42: 37-44.

Kim YT, Kim WK, Oh HI. 1995. Screening and identification of the fibrinolytic bacterial strain from Chungkookjang. Korean J Appl Microbial Biotechnol 23: 1-5.

Choi BD. 1997. Studies on the changes of the quality and chemical compositions in the aging of the Chungkookjang prepared with frozen soybeans. MS Thesis. Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.

Shon MY, Kwon SH, Sung CK, Park SK, Choi SD. 2001. Changes in chemical components of chungkugjang prepared with small black bean. J Korean Life Sci 11: 284-290.

Coward L, Smith M, Kirk M, Barnes S. 1998. Chemical modification of isoflavones in soyfoods during cooking and processing. Am J Clin Nutr 68: 1486S-1491S.

Eom SM, Jung BY, Oh HI. 2009. Changes in chemical components of Cheonggukjang prepared with germinated soybeans during fermentation. J Appl Biol Chem 52: 133-141. crossref(new window)

Rozan P, Kuo YH, Lambein F. 2000. Free amino acids present in commercially available seedlings sold for human consumption. A potential hazard for consumers. J Agric Food Chem 48: 716-723. crossref(new window)

An HS, Bae JS, Lee TS. 1987. Comparison of free amino acids, sugars, and organic acids soy bean paste prepared with various organisms. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 30: 345-350.

Jeong JH, Kim JS, Lee SD, Choi SH, Oh MJ. 1998. Studies on the contents of free amino acids, organic acids and isoflavones in commercial soybean paste. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27: 10-15.

Jung BM, Roh SB. 2004. Physicochemical quality comparison of commercial doenjang and traditional green tea doenjang. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 33: 132-139. crossref(new window)

Choi UK, Son DH, Ji WD, Im MH, Choi JD, Chung YG. 1998. Changes of taste components and palatability during chunggugjang fermentation by Bacillus subtilis DC-2. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 24: 840-845.

Joo HK, Kim DH, Oh KT. 1992. Chemical composition changes in fermented Doenjang depend on Doenjang koji and its mixture. J Korean Agric Chem Soc 35: 351-360.