Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Green Tea Seed Shell Ethanol Extracts
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects of Green Tea Seed Shell Ethanol Extracts
Sung, Nak-Yun; Song, Hayeon; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Byun, Eui-Baek; Jang, Beom-Su; Park, Chulhwan; Park, Won-Jong; Byun, Eui-Hong;
  PDF(new window)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of green tea seed shell as an industrial byproduct. Green tea seed shell extract (GTSSE) was obtained by ethanol extraction, and the yield was . The radical scavenging activities [1,1-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)], xanthine oxidase inhibition activity, and reducing power of GTSSE dose-dependently increased. To estimate the neuroprotective effect of GTSSE, viability was tested in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells. GTSSE treatment induced cytotoxicity at a concentration higher than but not at a concentration lower than . Using this optimal concentration range, GTSSE treatment significantly increased cell viability in -treated HT22 cells. Further, GTSSE treatment increased superoxide dismutase activity and decreased the malonaldehyde level, a product of lipid peroxidation, in HT22 cells. Therefore, these results indicate that green tea seed shell extract may be useful for the development of antioxidant materials and have potential activity to prevent and treat neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.
anti-oxidant activity;green tea seed shell;HT22 hippocampal neuronal cells;cell viability;neuroprotective effect;
 Cited by
Ott M, Gogvadze V, Orrenius S, Zhivotovsky B. 2007. Mitochondria, oxidative stress and cell death. Apoptosis 12: 913-922. crossref(new window)

Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. 2007. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 39: 44-84. crossref(new window)

McBride TJ, Preston BD, Loeb LA. 1991. Mutagenic spectrum resulting from DNA damage by oxygen radicals. Biochemistry 30: 207-213. crossref(new window)

Joo HY, Lim KT. 2009. Protective effect of glycoprotein isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata on liver in $CCl_4$-treated A/J mice. Korean J Food Sci Technol 41: 93-99.

Lin YL, Lin JK. 1997. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks the induction of nitric oxide synthase by down-regulating lipopolysaccharide-induced activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-${\kappa}B$. Mol Pharmacol 52: 465-472.

An BJ, Kwak JH, Son JH, Park JM, Lee JY, Park TS, Kim SY, Kim YS, Jo C, Byun MW. 2005. Physiological activity of irradiated green tea polyphenol on the human skin. Am J Chin Med 33: 535-546. crossref(new window)

Hibasami H, Komiya T, Achiwa Y, Ohnishi K, Kojima T, Nakanishi K, Akashi K, Hara Y. 1998. Induction of apoptosis in human stomach cancer cells by green tea catechins. Oncol Rep 5: 527-529.

Faria A, Pestana D, Teixeira D, Couraud PO, Romero I, Weksler B, de Freitas V, Mateus N, Calhau C. 2011. Insights into the putative catechin and epicatechin transport across blood-brain barrier. Food Funct 2: 39-44. crossref(new window)

Song HY, Sung NY, Jung PM, Kang MS, Park WJ, Byun EH. 2015. Whitening effect of green tea seed shell ethanol extracts. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 44: 1470-1475. crossref(new window)

Cha WS, Cho MJ, Ding JL, Shin HJ. 2008. Nutritional component analysis of green tea tree's root and seed. Korean J Biotechnol Bioeng 23: 387-391.

Min MJ, Choi MH, Kim GC, Shin HJ. 2013. Damage prevention effect of green tea seed oil on colored and decolored hair. Korean Soc Biotechnol Bioeng J 28: 287-294.

Noh KH, Jang JH, Min KH, Chinzorig R, Lee MO, Song YS. 2011. Suppressive effect of green tea seed coat ethyl acetate fraction on inflammation and its mechanism in RAW 264.7 macrophage cell. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 40: 625-634. crossref(new window)

Appel HM, Govenor HL, D'Ascenzo M, Siska E, Schultz JC. 2001. Limitations of Folin assays of foliar phenolics in ecological studies. J Chem Ecol 27: 761-778. crossref(new window)

Davis WB. 1947. Determination of flavanones in citrus fruits. Anal Chem 19: 476-478. crossref(new window)

Blois MS. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200. crossref(new window)

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. 1999. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 26: 1231-1237. crossref(new window)

Stirpe F, Della Corte E. 1969. The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. J Biol Chem 244: 3855-3863.

Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidative activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 44: 307-315. crossref(new window)

Lim HA, Jang CH, Kim JH, Kim JR, Ha YR, Song YS, Kim YK, Kim JS. 2006. Anti proliferative and anticarcinogenic enzyme-inducing activities of green tea seed extract in hepatoma cells. Food Sci Biotechnol 15: 914-919.

Yoo KM, Kim DO, Lee CY. 2007. Evaluation of different methods of antioxidant measurement. Food Sci Biotechnol 16: 177-182.

Ahmad N, Feyes DK, Nieminen AL, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H. 1997. Green tea constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate and induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human carcinoma cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 89: 1881-1886. crossref(new window)

Choi OJ, Choi KH. 2003. The physicochemical properties of Korean wild teas (green tea, semi-fermented tea, and black tea) according to degree of fermentation. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 32: 356-362. crossref(new window)

Kinlen LJ, Willows AN, Goldblatt P, Yudkin J. 1988. Tea consumption and cancer. Br J Cancer 58: 397-401. crossref(new window)

Chiang HC, Chen YY. 1993. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the roots of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). J Enzyme Inhib 7: 225-235. crossref(new window)

Aucamp J, Gaspar A, Hara Y, Apostolides Z. 1997. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by catechins from tea (Camellia sinensis). Anticancer Res 17: 4381-4385.

Kim YS, Lee SJ, Hwang JW, Kim EH, Park PJ, Jeon BT. 2011. Antioxidant activity and protective effects of extracts from Helianthus tuberosus L. leaves on t-BHP induced oxidative stress in Chang cells. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 40: 1525-1531. crossref(new window)

Choi Y, Jeong HS, Lee J. 2007. Antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from some grains consumed in Korea. Food Chem 103: 130-138. crossref(new window)

Shackelford RE, Kaufmann WK, Paules RS. 2000. Oxidative stress and cell cycle checkpoint function. Free Radic Biol Med 28: 1387-1404. crossref(new window)

Rao KS. 2009. Free radical induced oxidative damage to DNA: relation to brain aging and neurological disorders. Indian J Biochem Biophys 46: 9-15.

Mandel SA, Avramovich-Tirosh Y, Reznichenko L, Zheng H, Weinreb O, Amit T, Youdim MBH. 2005. Multifunctional activities of green tea catechins in neuroprotection. Neurosignals 14: 46-60. crossref(new window)

Zemlan FP, Thienhaus OJ, Bosmann HB. 1989. Superoxide dismutase activity in Alzheimer's disease: possible mechanism for paired helical filament formation. Brain Res 476: 160-162. crossref(new window)

Weinreb O, Amit T, Mandel S, Youdim MBH. 2009. Neuroprotective molecular mechanisms of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate: a reflective outcome of its antioxidant, iron chelating and neuritogenic properties. Genes Nutr 4: 283-296. crossref(new window)

Morrow JD, Awad JA, Kato T, Takahashi K, Badr KF, Roberts LJ 2nd, Burk RF. 1992. Formation of novel non-cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids (F2-isoprostanes) in carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity. An animal model of lipid peroxidation. J Clin Invest 90: 2502-2507. crossref(new window)

Anzai K, Ogawa K, Goto Y, Senzaki Y, Ozawa T, Yamamoto H. 1999. Oxidation-dependent changes in the stability and permeability of lipid bilayers. Antioxid Redox Signal 1: 339-347. crossref(new window)

Bermejo P, Gomez-Serranillos P, Santos J, Pastor E, Gil P, Martin-Aragon S. 1997. Determination of malonaldehyde in Alzheimer's disease: a comparative study of high-performance liquid chromatography and thiobarbituric acid test. Gerontology 43: 218-222.

Inal ME, Kanbak G, Sunal E. 2001. Antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde levels related to aging. Clin Chim Acta 305: 75-80. crossref(new window)

Choi YT, Jung CH, Lee SR, Bae JH, Baek WK, Suh MH, Park J, Park CW, Suh SI. 2001. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate attenuates ${\beta}$-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Life Sci 70: 603-614. crossref(new window)