Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Comparison of Nutritional Compositions between Amaranth Baby-Leaves Cultivated in Korea
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Comparison of Nutritional Compositions between Amaranth Baby-Leaves Cultivated in Korea
Jang, Hye-Lim; Yoo, Min; Nam, Jin-Sik;
  PDF(new window)
In the present study, we compared and investigated the nutritional compositions of Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus baby-leaves cultivated in Korea. Baby-leaves of two amaranthes consisted of more than 92% moisture, and A. cruentus contained a higher amount of moisture than A. hypochondriacus. Meanwhile, A. hypochondriacus contained higher levels of crude ash, crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber than A. cruentus. The major free sugars of the two amaranth baby-leaves were fructose and glucose. Fructose content of A. hypochondriacus was higher than that of A. cruentus, and glucose content of A. cruentus was higher than that of A. hypochondriacus. Acetic acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid were detected in two amaranth leaves, but succinic acid was not detected. Two amaranth leaves contained 17 amino acids except for methionine, proline, and tyrosine, and leaves contained the highest glutamic acid contents. In addition, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus leaves contained high contents of taurine and -aminobutyric acid and showed various biological activities. The major mineral and fatty acid of the two amaranth leaves were potassium and linolenic acid (C18:3), respectively. The -carotene contents of A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus leaves were and , respectively. In vitamin B complex, , , and were detected in the two amaranth leaves whereas vitamins , , and were not detected. A. hypochondriacus contained higher amounts of vitamin C and E than those of A. cruentus. Overall, amaranth leaves contained high amounts of nutritional components. Therefore, amaranth leaves are expected to be useful for the development of a functional food. Moreover, these results will provide fundamental data for advancing sitological value, breeding new cultivars, and promoting leafy vegetable usage.
amaranth;Amaranthus cruentus;Amaranthus hypochondriacus;nutritional compositions;functional foods;
 Cited by
Hong SY, Cho KS, Jin YI, Yeon YH, Kim SJ, Nam JH, Jeong JC, Kwon OK, Sohn HB. 2014. Comparison of growth characteristics, antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of Amaranthus species according to the different cultivation regions and varieties in South Korea. Korean J Crop Sci 59: 16-21. crossref(new window)

Choi CR, Choi HJ, Kim SR, Lee JH, Shin MS. 2000. Comparisons of characteristics of amaranth starches isolated from five cultivars grown in Korea. Korean J Food Sci Technol 32: 252-257.

Breene WM. 1991. Food uses of grain amaranth. Cereal Foods World 36: 426-430.

Baker LA, Rayas-Duarte P. 1998. Freeze-thaw stability of amaranth starch and the effects of salt and sugars. Cereal Chem 75: 301-307. crossref(new window)

Koeppe SJ, Harris PL, Hanna MA, Rupnow JH, Walker CE, Cuppett SL. 1987. Physical properties and some nutritional characteristics of an extrusion product with defatted amaranth seeds and defatted maize gluten meal (80:20 ratio). Cereal Chem 64: 332-336.

Gamel TH, Linssen JP, Mesallem AS, Damir AA, Shekib LA. 2005. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition and properties of two amaranth species: starch and protein. J Sci Food Agric 85: 319-327. crossref(new window)

de Ruiz ASC, Bressani R. 1990. Effect of germination on the chemical composition and nutritive value of amaranth grain. Cereal Chem 67: 519-522.

Baltensperger DD, Weber LE, Nelson LA. 1992. Registration of 'Plainsman' grain amaranth. Crop Sci 32: 1510-1511. crossref(new window)

Resio AC, Aguerre RJ, Suarez C. 1999. Analysis of the sorptional characteristics of amaranth starch. J Food Eng 42: 51-57. crossref(new window)

Kong X, Corke H, Bertoft E. 2009. Fine structure characterization of amylopectins from grain amaranth starch. Carbohydr Res 344: 1701-1708. crossref(new window)

Pisařikova B, Kracmar S, Herzig I. 2005. Amino acid contents and biological value of protein in various amaranth species. Czech J Anim Sci 50: 169-174.

Mendonca S, Saldiva PH, Cruz RJ, Areas JAG. 2009. Amaranth protein presents cholesterol-lowering effect. Food Chem 116: 738-742. crossref(new window)

Plate AYA, Areas JAG. 2002. Cholesterol-lowering effect of extruded amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Food Chem 76: 1-6. crossref(new window)

Lipkin A, Anisimova V, Nikonorova A, Babakov A, Krause E, Bienert M, Grishin E, Egorov T. 2005. An antimicrobial peptide Ar-AMP from amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) seeds. Phytochemisty 66: 2426-2431. crossref(new window)

Tovar-Perez EG, Guerrero-Legarreta I, Farres-Gonzalez A, Soriano-Santos J. 2009. Angiotensin I-converting enzymeinhibitory peptide fractions from albumin 1 and globulin as obtained of amaranth grain. Food Chem 116: 437-444. crossref(new window)

Amin I, Norazaidah Y, Hainida KIE. 2006. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of raw and blanched Amaranthus species. Food Chem 94: 47-52. crossref(new window)

Pasko P, Barton H, Zagrodzki P, Gorinstein S, Folta M, Zachwieja Z. 2009. Anthocyanins, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in amaranth and quinoa seeds and sprouts during their growth. Food Chem 115: 994-998. crossref(new window)

Maiyo ZC, Ngure RM, Matasyoh JC, Chepkorir R. 2010. Phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts of three Amaranthus plant species. Afr J Biotechnol 9: 3178-3182.

AOAC. 2005. Official methods of analysis. 18th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC, USA.

Jang HL, Lee JH, Hwang MJ, Choi Y, Kim H, Hwang J, Nam JS. 2015. Comparison of physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities between Lentinula edodes and new cultivar Lentinula edodes GNA01. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 44: 1484-1491. crossref(new window)

Park KY, Ha JO, Rhee SH. 1996. A study on the contents of dietary fibers and crude fiber in Kimchi ingredients and Kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 25: 69-75.

Schaller D. 1978. Fiber content and structure in foods. Am J Clin Nutr 31: S99-S102.

Wills RBH, Wong AWK, Scriven FM, Greenfield H. 1984. Nutrient composition of Chinese vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 32: 413-416. crossref(new window)

Cho YS, Park SK, Chun SS, Moon JS, Ha BS. 1993. Proximate, sugar and amino acid compositions of Dolsan leaf mustard (Brassica juncea). J Korean Soc Food Nutr 22: 48-52.

Park SI, Kim TS, Park CG, Kang MH. 2012. Nutritional and sensory of green leafy vegetables cultivated from medicinal plant seed. J East Asian Soc Diet Life 22: 271-277.

Anderson JW. 1986. Dietary fiber in nutrition management of diabetes. In Dietary Fiber: Basic and Clinical Aspects. Vahouny GV, Kritchevsky D, eds. Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA. p 343-360.

Park SK, Cho YS, Park JR, Chun SS, Moon JS. 1993. Nonvolatile organic acids, mineral, fatty acids and fiber compositions in Dolsan leaf mustard (Brassica juncea). J Korean Soc Food Nutr 22: 53-57.

Kim MH, Jang HL, Yoon KY. 2012. Changes in physicochemical properties of Haetsun vegetables by blanching. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 41: 647-654. crossref(new window)

Son HK, Kang ST, Jung HO, Lee JJ. 2013. Changes in physicochemical properties of Peucedanum japonicum Thunb. after blanching. Korean J Food Preserv 20: 628-635. crossref(new window)

Lee JJ, Jung HO. 2012. Changes in physicochemical properties of Spergularia marina Griseb by blanching. Korean J Food Preserv 19: 866-872. crossref(new window)

Kim YJ, Lee DH, Kim KI. 2012. The comparative study of components in Luwak coffee and Indonesian coffee. J Korea Soc Coffee Ind 1: 24-30.

Park SH, Lee JH. 2005. The correlation of physico-chemical characteristics of Kimchi with sourness and overall acceptability. Korean J Food Cook Sci 21: 103-109.

Shallenberger RS. 2012. Taste chemistry. In Sour and Salty Organic Substances. Rudolf H, Mori K, eds. Blackie Academy, London, UK. p 289-291.

Ockerman HW, Crespo FL. 1982. Physicochemical changes occurring during storage of precured beef blends at different temperatures and two levels of salt. J Food Sci 47: 849-851. crossref(new window)

Komata Y. 1969. The taste and constituents of foods. Nippon Shokuhin Kogyo Gakkaishi 3: 26.

Chesney RW. 1985. Taurine: its biological role and clinical implications. Adv Pediatr 32: 1-42.

Huxtable RJ. 1992. Physiological actions of taurine. Physiol Rev 72: 101-163.

Chang JS, Lee BS, Kim YG. 1992. Changes in ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the main constituents by a treated conditions and of anaprobically treated green tea leaves. Korean J Food Sci Technol 24: 315-319.

Lee BH, Choi SH, Shin TJ, Hwang SH, Kang J, Kim HJ, Kim BJ, Nah SY. 2012. Effects of ginsenoside metabolites on GABAA receptor-mediated ion currents. J Ginseng Res 36: 55-60. crossref(new window)

Park TS, Park JE, Chang JS, Son MW, Sohn KH. 1998. Taurine content in Korean foods of plant origin. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 27: 801-807.

Shukla S, Bhargava A, Chatterjee A, Srivastava J, Singh N, Singh SP. 2006. Mineral profile and variability in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor). Plant Foods Hum Nutr 61: 23-28.

Akubugwo IE, Obasi NA, Chinyere GC, Ugbogu AE. 2007. Nutritional and chemical value of Amaranthus hybridus L. leaves from Afikpo, Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol 6: 2833-2839. crossref(new window)

National Academy of Agricultural Science. 2011. Food com position table. 8th revision. Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Korea. p 198.

Lee HA, Yoo IJ, Lee BH. 1997. Research and development trends on omega-3 fatty acid fortified foodstuffs. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr 26: 161-174.

Mosha TC, Pace RD, Adeyeye S, Mtebe K, Laswai H. 1995. Proximate composition and mineral content of selected Tanzanian vegetables and the effect of traditional processing on the retention of ascorbic acid, riboflavin and thiamine. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 48: 235-245. crossref(new window)

Oboh G, Raddatz H, Henle T. 2008. Antioxidant properties of polar and non-polar extracts of some tropical green leafy vegetables. J Sci Food Agric 88: 2486-2492. crossref(new window)