Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Change in the Microbial Profiles of Commercial Kimchi during Fermentation
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Journal of Food Preservation
  • Volume 18, Issue 5,  2011, pp.786-794
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Food Preservation
  • DOI : 10.11002/kjfp.2011.18.5.786
 Title & Authors
Change in the Microbial Profiles of Commercial Kimchi during Fermentation
Chang, Ji-Yoon; Choi, Yu-Ri; Chang, Hae-Choon;
  PDF(new window)
To investigate the sanitary-quality level of commercial kimchi in South Korea, the pH, acidity, and microbial-flora changes in the kimchi were determined. Samples of kimchi produced by three different manufacturers (a small grocery store, a small/medium-sized enterprise, and a large food company) were collected. Freshly made kimchi was purchased and fermented at for 10 days. The pH of the commercial kimchi on the purchased day was approximately pH 5.8, and that on the day of fermentation was 4.1. The kimchi purchased from a large company showed a more rapid decline in pH level during fermentation. The saltiness of the kimchi purchased from a medium-sized company was slightly higher than those of the other commercial kimchi samples. The saccharinity index of the kimchi produced by a small grocery store was higher than those of the other samples, and its value deviation was also higher than those of the other commercial kimchi samples. A higher total viable-cell count and a higher lactic-acid bacteria (LAB) count were detected in the kimchi from the large food company at the beginning of fermentation compared to the samples of the two other kimchi manufacturers. The highest cell numbers of gram-positive bacteria (except LAB) and coliform bacteria were detected from the small-grocery-store kimchi, but the coliform bacteria count gradually decreased during fermentation although such bacteria were still detected until the day of fermentation. In contrast, coliform bacteria were not detected in the samples from the medium-sized and large food companies. Yeast, which is detected in over-ripened kimchi, was detected in the unfermented kimchi from the small grocery store, which had a below-0.36% acidity level. The gram-positive bacteria (except LAB) that were detected in all the tested commercial kimchi samples were determined to be Bacillus spp., and the gram-negative bacteria were determined to be Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp., Sphingomonase spp., and Strenophomonas spp. The proportions of all the aforementioned bacteria in the kimchi samples, however, were different depending on the samples that were taken. These results indicate that a more sanitary kimchi production process and a more systematic kimchi production manual should be developed to industrialize and globalize kimchi.
commercial kimchi;microbial community;microbial sanitation;fermentation;
 Cited by
아질산염과 녹차 추출물의 첨가에 따른 김치 발효 소시지의 미생물 및 이화학적 품질 특성 비교,강선문;김태실;조수현;박범영;이성기;

Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 2012. vol.54. 4, pp.299-305 crossref(new window)
김치의 저장성 향상을 위한 항균활성 우수 유산균 선발,최학종;김유진;이나라;박해웅;장자영;박성희;강미란;김현주;이종희;이종훈;변유량;김태운;

한국식품영양과학회지, 2014. vol.43. 2, pp.328-332 crossref(new window)
Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork,;;;;;;;;;;

한국축산식품학회지, 2015. vol.35. 3, pp.277-285 crossref(new window)
개똥쑥 추출물을 첨가한 김치의 품질특성,이상수;권동진;

한국식품저장유통학회지, 2015. vol.22. 5, pp.666-673 crossref(new window)
한국, 일본, 중국 김치의 품질 비교 분석,이혜진;정수연;김재환;유승란;

한국식품저장유통학회지, 2016. vol.23. 7, pp.967-976 crossref(new window)
Selection of Lactic Acid Bacteria with Antibacterial Activity for Extension of Kimchi Shelf-life, Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, 2014, 43, 2, 328  crossref(new windwow)
Quality characteristics of kimchi with Artemisia annua extracts, Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 2015, 22, 5, 666  crossref(new windwow)
Quality Characteristics of Commercial Kimchi Paste, Korean Journal of Food & Cookery Science, 2017, 33, 1, 9  crossref(new windwow)
Use of Laser-Etched Pouches to Control the Volume Expansion of Kimchi Packages During Distribution: Impact of Packaging and Storage on Quality Characteristics, Journal of Food Science, 2017, 82, 8, 1876  crossref(new windwow)
Quality and sensory characteristics of commercial kimchi according to sodium contents, Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2016, 48, 5, 413  crossref(new windwow)
Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork, Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 2015, 35, 3, 277  crossref(new windwow)
Comparison of Microbial and Physico-chemical Quality Characteristics in Kimchi-fermented Sausages with Sodium Nitrite and Green Tea Extract, Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 2012, 54, 4, 299  crossref(new windwow)
Comparative quality analysis of kimchi products manufactured in Korea, Japan, and China, Korean Journal of Food Preservation, 2016, 23, 7, 967  crossref(new windwow)
Lee CH (1986) Kimchi; Korean fermented vegetable foods. Korean J Dietary Culture, 1, 395-402

Ku KH, Sunwoo JY, Park WS (2005) Effects of ingredients on the its quality characteristics during kimchi fermentation. J Korean Soc. Food Sci Nutr, 34, 267-276 crossref(new window)

Codex. Codex: Alimentarius Commission Codex standard for kimchi. Codex Stan 223. (2001)

USA. Health magagine: Available from http://eating. Updated Feb. 1, (2008)

Jeon CG (2009) Marketing analysis of the imported kimchi and challenges for the domestic kimchi industry. Korean J Food Marketing Economics, 26, 79-101

Kim OS, Joo NM (2007) A study on purchasing current status and promotion factors for commercial kimchi of women in seoul area. Korean J Food Culture, 22, 167-175

You JH, Shin MJ, and Choi SK (2008) Importance and satisfaction with selection attributes when purchasing kimchi. J East Asian Soc Dietary Life, 18, 624-632

Shin DH, Kim MS, Han JS, Lim DK, Bak WS (1996) Changes of chemical composition and microflora in commercial kimchi. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 28, 137-145

Han HU, Lim CR, Park HK (1990) Determination of microbial community as an indicator of kimchi fermentation. Korean J Food Sci. Technol, 22, 26-32

Jeon YS, Kye IS, Cheigh HS (1999) Changes of vitamin C and fermentation characteristics of kimchi on different cabbage variety and fermentation temperature. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 28, 773-779.

Rhee HS, Lee CH, Lee GJ (1987) Changes in the chemical composition and textural properties of Korean cabbage during salting. Korean J Soc Food Sci, 3, 64-70

Korea. Nongmin newspaper: Available from detail.htm?ar_id=164547&subMenu=articletotal. Accessed July. 31 (2009)

Kim MJ, Chun JS (2005) Bacterial community structure in kimchi, a korean fermented vegetable food, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. Int J Food Microbiol, 103, 91-96 crossref(new window)

Ko JL, Oh CK, Oh MC, Kim SH (2009) Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from commercial kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 38, 732-741 crossref(new window)

Kwon EA, Kim MH (2007) Microbial evaluation of commercially packed kimchi products. Korean Food Sci Biotechnol, 16, 615-620

Inatsu Y, Bari ML, Kawasaki S, Isshiki K (2004) Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes in kimchi. J Food Prot, 67, 1497-1500 crossref(new window)

Shin DH, KIM MS, Han JS, Lim DK, Park WS (1996) Changes of chemical composition and microflora in commericial kimchi. Korean J Food Technol, 28, 137-145

Ahn DK, Han TW, Shin HY, Jin IN, Ghim SY (2003) Diversity and antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol, 31, 191-196

Choi EH, Kim YB, Lee SR (1977) Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper power and their radiosensitivity. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 9, 205-210

Choi KC (1978) Studies on the yeasts isolated from kimchi. Korean J Microbiol, 16, 1-10

Kim HS, Jeong YS (1966) Identification of the aerobic bacteria isolated from kimchi and laver. J Korean Soc Appl Biol Chem, 3, 19-24

Ko JL, Oh CK, Oh MC, Kim SH (2009) Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from commercial kimchi. J Korean Soc Food Sci Nutr, 38, 732-741 crossref(new window)

Lee CW, Ko CY, Ha DM (1992) Microfloral changes of the lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation and identification of the isolates. Korean J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 20, 102-109

Lee MJ, Cho KH, Han ES, Lee JH (2010) Bacterial diversity in the initial fermentation stage of Korean and Chinese kimchi. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol. 38, 207-215

Lee JS, Heo GY, Lee JW, Oh YJ, Park JA, Park YH, Pyun YR, Ahn JS (2005) Analysis of kimchi microflora using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Int J Food Microbiol, 102, 143-150 crossref(new window)

Lim CR, Park HK, Han HU (1989) Reevaluation of isolation and identification of gram-positive bacteria kimchi. Korean J Microbiol, 27, 404-414

Park JA, Heo GY, Lee JS, Oh YJ, Kim BY, Mheen TI, Kim CK, Ahn JS (2003) Changes of microbial communities in kimchi fermentation at low temperature. Korean J Microbiol, 39, 45-50

Shim SM, Lee JH (2008) PCR-based detection of lactic acid bacteria in Korean fermented vegetables with recA gene targeted species-specific primers. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol, 36, 96-100

Shim SM, Lee JH (2008) Evaluation of lactic acid bacteria community in kimchi using terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol, 36, 247-259

Kim YS, Zheng ZB, Shin DH (2008) Growth inhibitory effects of kimchi(Korean traditional fermented vegetable product) against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. J Food Prot, 71, 325-332 crossref(new window)

Lee JK, Jung DW, Kim YJ, Cha SK, Lee MK, Ahn BH, Kwak NS, Oh SW (2009) Growth inhibitory effect of fermented kimchi on food-borne pathogens. Korean Food Sci Biotechnol, 18, 12-17

Lee SH, Kim MK, Frank JS (1995) Growth of Listeria monocytogenes Scott A during kimchi fermentation and in the presence of kimchi ingredients. J Food Prot, 58, 1215-1218 crossref(new window)

Park YS, Lee SR, Kim YG (2006) Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in kimchi by multiplex polymerase chain reaction(mPCR). J Microbiol, 44, 92-97

Shin SM, Park JY, Kim EJ, Hahn YS (2005) Investigation of some harmful bacteria in commercial kimchi. Korean J Food Cookery Sci 21, 195-200

Kim ID, Park MJ, Kim SD (1997) Changes in coliform bacteria during fermentation of kimchi. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 9, 71-73

Kim JG, Yoon JS (2005) Changes of index microoganisma and lactic acid bacteria of Korea fermented vegetables (kimchi) during the ripening and fermentation-part 1. Korean J Env Hlth, 30, 79-85

Park MJ, Kim SD, Kim MK, Kim ID (1997) Microbial contamination of materials, washing of Chinese cabbage by ozon treatment and fermentation of kimchi. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 9, 25-32

Chung CH, Kim YS, Yoo YJ, Kyung KH (1997) Presence and control of coliform bacteria in kimchi. Korean J Food Sci Technol, 29, 999-1005

KFDA (2011) Food code. Korean Food & Durg Administration, Seoul, Korea

AOAC (1995) Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed, Association of official analytical chemists, Washington DC, USA.

USA (2010) National Center for Biotechnology Information: Nucleotide Blast Search Program,