Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Performance of Acacia senegal (L.) Wild Seedlings Growth under some Tree Manures and NPK Fertilizers in Nursery Site
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Performance of Acacia senegal (L.) Wild Seedlings Growth under some Tree Manures and NPK Fertilizers in Nursery Site
Daldoum, Daldoum Mohamed A.; Hammad, Ghassan Habib;
  PDF(new window)
This study aimed to assess the effects of tree manures in comparison with NPK fertilizer on growth of Acacia senegal seedlings. It was conducted in the nursery of the Faculty of Forestry, University of Khartoum, Shambat (Lat.: 39` 387" N and Long.: 30` 871" E), during August 2008 and January 2009. The growing media were prepared by mixing ground foliage of trees with sandy soil (weight/volume) as follows, Albizia lebbeck (AL): 25 g, 50 g and 75 g; Azadirachta indica (AZ): 25 g, 50 g and 75 g; Khaya senegalensis (KH): 25 g, 50 g and 75 g; NPK fertilizer: 30 g per seedling. Albizia lebbeck and Azadirachta indica manures and NPK fertilizer have stimulated the Acacia senegal seed germination percentage in comparison with the control, with respective values of 89, 82.7, 81 and 71%. Khaya senegalensis manure has suppressed the Acacia senegal seed germination percentage with a value of only 49%. Effects of treatments on the seedlings growth parameters varied in the following percentages, in comparison to the control, shoot height: AZ 62.9%, AL 46%, KH 9.9% and NPK 27.8%; root length: AZ 25.8%, AL 31.5%, KH 30.6% and NPK 4.4%; diameter: AZ 75.2%, AL 37.1%, KH 34.3% and NPK 20%; Shoot biomass: AZ 319%, AL 195.2%, KH 57.1% and NPK 42.9%; root biomass: AZ 288.9%, AL 116.7%, KH 55.6% and NPK 16.7%%;. Thus, the effectiveness of the used substrates on the growth performance of Acacia senegal seedlings occurred in the following descending order: Azadirachta indica> Albizia lebbeck>Khaya senegalensis>NPK fertilizer. These results assert clearly the ameliorative and fertilizing characteristics of tree manures that can be reliably used for raising seedlings stocks in the nurseries.
tree manure;NPK fertilizer;sandy soil;Acacia senegal seedlings;
 Cited by
Growth and Physiology of Senegalia senegal (L.) Britton Seedlings as Influenced by Seed Origin and Salinity and Fertility Treatments, Forests, 2017, 8, 10, 388  crossref(new windwow)
Agyarko K, Kwakye PK, Bonsu M, Osei BA, Asante JS. 2005. Effect of neem and organic amendments on nematode populations in a coastal savanna tropicals soil. Phytoparasitica 33: 343-346. crossref(new window)

Bot A, Benites J. 2005. The Importance of Soil Organic Matter: Key to Drought-Resistant Soil and Sustained Food Production. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy, Rome.

Carnol M, Bazgir M. 2013. Nutrient return to the forest floor through litter and throughfall under 7 forest species after conversion from Norway spruce. Forest Ecology and Management 309: 66-75. crossref(new window)

Deans JD, Diagne O, Nizinski J, Lindley DK, Seck M, Ingleby K, Munro RC. 2003. Comparative Growth, Biomass Production, Nutrient Use and Soil Amelioration by Nitrogen-Fixing Tree Species in Semi-Arid Senegal. Forest Ecology and Management 176: 253-264. crossref(new window)

Descheemaeker K, Muys B, Nyssen J, Poesen J, Raes D, Haile M, Deckers J. 2006. Litter Production and Organic Matter Accumulation in Exclosures of the Tigray highlands, Ethiopia. Forest Ecology and Management 233: 21-35. crossref(new window)

Duchaufour P. 1984. Abrege de pedologie. Masson, Paris, France, 220 pp.

Eghball B, Ginting D, Gilley JE. 2004. Residual Effects of Manure and Compost Applications on Corn Production and Soil Properties. Agron J 96: 442-447. crossref(new window)

Elamin HM. 1990. Trees & Shrubs of the Sudan. Ithaca Press, Exeter, England, 484 pp.

Giller KE. 2001. Nitrogen Fixation in Tropical Cropping Systems. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, 423 pp.

Giller K, Misiko M, Tittonell P. 2006. Managing Organic Resources for Soil Amendment. Leisa Magazine 22: 16-17.

Harmand JM, Njiti CF, Bernhard-Reversat F, Puig H. 2004. Aboveground and Belowground Biomass, Productivity and Nutrient Accumulation in Tree Improved Fallows in the Dry Tropics of Cameroon. Forest Ecology and Management 188: 249-265. crossref(new window)

Harris RW. 1992. Root-Shoot Ratios. Journal of Arboriculture 18: 39-42.

Helmy WA, Amer H, EL-Shayeb NMA. 2007. Biological and Anti-Microbial Activities of Aqueous Extracts from Neem Tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae). Journal of Applied Sciences Research 3: 1050-1055.

Kalra YP. 1998. Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC, Washington DC, 291 pp.

Khan MA, Khitran TA, Baloch MS, Sulemani MZ. 1999. Allelopathic Effect of Eucalyptus on Soil Characteristics and Growth of Maize. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 2: 390-393. crossref(new window)

Klute A. 1986. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1: Physical and Mineralogical Methods. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wis, 1188 pp.

Kung'u BJ, Kihara J, Mugendi DN, Jaenicke H. 2008. Effect of Small-Scale Farmers' Tree Nursery Growing Medium on Agroforestry Tree Seedlings' Quality in Mt. Kenya Region. Scientific Research and Essay 3: 359-364.

Laclau JP, Ranger J, Goncalves JLM, Maquere V, Krusche AV, M'Bou AT, Nouvellon Y, Saint-Andre L, Bouillet JP, Piccolo MC, Deleporte P. 2010. Biogeochemical Cycles of Nutrients in Tropical Eucalyptus Plantations Main Features Shown by Intensive Monitoring in Congo and Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 1771-1785. crossref(new window)

Landis TD. 1990. Containers and growing media (Vol. 2). In: The Container Tree Nursery Manual (Landis TD, Nisley RG, eds). US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington DC, pp 41-85.

Mafongoya PL, Giller KE, Palm CA. 1998. Decomposition and Nitrogen Release Patterns of Tree Prunings and Litter. Agroforestry Systems 38: 77-97.

Magdoff F, Van Es H. 2000. Building Soils for Better Crops. Sustainable Agriculture Network, Beltsvile, MD, 230 pp.

Mandal UK, Singh G, Victor US, Sharma KL. 2003. Green Manuring: Its Effect on Soil Properties and Crop Growth under Rice-Wheat Cropping System. European Journal of Agronomy 19: 225-237. crossref(new window)

Miller JH, Jones N. 1995. Organic and Compost-based Growing Media for Tree Seedling Nurseries. World Bank, Washington DC.

Montagnini F, Jordan CF, Machado RM. 2000. Nutrient Cycling and Nutrient use Efficiency in Agroforestry Systems. In: The Silvicultural basis for Agroforestry Systems (Ashton MS, Montagnini F, eds). CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Fla.

Mordue AJ, Morgan ED, Nisbet AJ. 2005. Azadirachtin, a Natural Product in Insect Control. Comprehensive Molecular Insect Science 6: 117-135.

Mubarak AR, Elbashir AA, Elamin LA, Daldoum DMA, Steffens D, Benckiser G. 2008. Decomposition and Nutrient Release from Litter Fall in the Semi-arid Tropics of Sudan. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 39: 2359-2377. crossref(new window)

Mubarak AR, Daldoum DMA, Sayed AM. 2009. Note on the Influence of Leaf Extracts of Nine Trees on Seed Germination, Radicle and Hypocotyl Elongation of Maize and Sorghum. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 11: 340-342.

Muoghalu JI, Akanni SO, Eretan OO. 1993. Litter Fall and Nutrient Dynamics in a Nigerian Rain Forest Seven Years after a Ground Fire. Journal of Vegetation Science 4: 323-328. crossref(new window)

Nair PKR. 1993. An Introduction to Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publishers in cooperation with International Centre for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), Gainesville, Florida, 489 pp.

National Research Council (US). 1992. Neem : A Tree for Solving Global Problems. Report of an Ad Hoc Panel of the Board of Science and Technology for International Development, National Research Council. National Academies Press, Washington DC, 152 pp.

Onemli F. 2004. The Effects of Soil Organic Matter on Seedling Emergence in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L). Plant Soil Environ 50: 494-499.

Rao MR, Mathuva MN. 2000. Legumes for Improving Maize Yields and Income in Semi-Arid Kenya. Agricultural, Ecosystems and Environment 78: 123-137. crossref(new window)

Roy RN, Finck A, Blair GJ, Tandon HLS. 2006. Plant Nutrition for Food Security. A Guide for Integrated Nutrient Management. FOA, Italy.

Sangakkara UR, Liedgens M, Soldati A, Stamp P. 2004. Root and Shoot Growth of Maize (Zea mays) as Affected by Incorporation of Crotolaria juncea and Tithonia diversifolia as Green Manures. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 190: 339-346. crossref(new window)

SAS. Institute Inc. 1990. SAS/Graph User's Guide, Release 6.04. SAS Institute, Inc. Cary, N.C.

Schroth G, Sinclair FL. 2003. Trees, Crops and Soil Fertility: Concepts and Research Methods. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, 451 pp.

Sileshi G, Akinnifesi FK, Mkonda A, Ajayi OC. 2007. Effect of Growth Media and Fertilizer Application on Biomass Allocation and Survival of Uapaca kirkiana Müell Arg Seedlings. Scientific Research and Essay 2: 408-415.

Solomon MG, Okon PB, Umoetok SBA. 2008. Effects of Neem Extracts on Soil Properties, Microbial Populations and Leaf Area of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis). Research Journal of Agronomy 2: 12-17.

Uddin MB, Mukul SA, Arfin Khan MAS, Hossain MK. 2007. Effects of Phosphorous Fertilizer on Seedlings Growth and Nodulation Capabilities of some Popular Agroforestry Tree Species of Bangladesh. Journal of Forestry Research 18: 283-286. crossref(new window)

Whiting D, Card A, Wilson C, Reeder J. 2009. Using Manure in the Home Garden. CMG Garden Notes #242. Colorado State University Cooperative Extension. 242(1-4). Website:

Xiaogai G, Lixiong Z, Wenfa X, Zhilin H, Xiansheng G, Benwang T. 2013. Effect of Litter Substrate Quality and Soil Nutrients on Forest Litter Decomposition: A Review. Acta Ecologica 33: 102-108. crossref(new window)

Young A. 2002. Effects of Trees on Soils, The Natural Farmer (Special Supplement on Agro-Forestry Soil Fertility and Land Degradation). Website:

Zeng RS, Mallik AU, Luo SM. 2008. Allelopathy in Sustainable Agriculture and Forestry. Springer, New York, 389 pp.