Fabrication and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite/Mullite and Tricalcium Phosphate/Al2O3 Composites Containing 30 wt% of Bioactive Components Ha, Jung-Soo;
Mullite-matrix and -matrix composites were fabricated with 30 wt% hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP), respectively, as additives to give bioactivity. A diphasic gel process was employed to lower the densification temperature of the mullite matrix to . A polymer complexation process was used to synthesize a TCP powder that was fully densified at , for application to the matrix. For the HA/mullite composite, HA decomposed during sintering by reactions with the matrix components of and , resulting in a mixture of , TCP, and other minor phases with a low densification of less than 88% of the theoretical density (TD). In contrast, the TCP/ composite was highly densified by sintering at to 96%TD with no reaction between the components. Different from the TCP monolith, the TCP/ composite also showed a fine microstructure and intergranular fracture, both of which characteristics are advantageous for strength and fracture toughness.
W. Suchanek and M. Yoshimura, "Processing and Properties of Hydroxyapatite-based Biomaterials for Use as a Hard Tissue Replacement Implants," J. Mater. Res., 13  94-117 (1998).
H. Y. Juang and M. H. Hon, "Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Hydroxyapatite-alumina Composites," Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 2 77-81 (1994).
J. Li, B. B. Fartash, and L. Hermansson, "Hydroxyapatitealumina Composites and Bone-bonding," Biomaterials, 16 417-22 (1995).
S. Gautier, E. Champion, and D. B. Assollant, "Processing, Microstructure and Toughness of Al2O3 Platelet-reinforced Hydroxyapatite," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 17 1361-69 (1997).
B. Viswanath and N. Ravishankar, "Interfacial Reactions in Hydroxyapatite/Alumina Nanocomposites," Scripta Mater., 55 863-66 (2006).
Y. X. Pang, X. Bao, and L. Weng, "Preparation of Tricalcium Phosphate/Alumina Composite Nanoparticles and Self-reinforcing Composites by Simultaneous Precipitation," J. Mater. Sci., 39 6311-23 (2004).
E. Adolfsson, P. Alberius-Henning, and L. Hermansson, "Phase Analysis and Thermal Stability of Hot Isostatically Pressed Zirconia-hydroxyapatite Composites," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83 2798-802 (2000).
R. R. Rao and T. S. Kannan, "Synthesis and Sintering of Hydroxyapatite-zirconia Composites," Mater. Sci. Eng. C, 20 187-93 (2002).
V. V. Silva, F. S. Lamerias, and R. Z. Dominguez, "Microstructural and Mechanical Study of Zirconia-hydroxyapatite (ZH) Composite Ceramics for Biomedical Applications," Comps. Sci. Technol., 61 301-10 (2001).
S. Nath, K. Biswas, K. Wang, R. K. Bordia, and B. Basu, "Sintering, Phase Stability, and Properties of Calcium Phosphate-mullite Composites," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 93  1639-49 (2010).
I. Manjubala and M. Sivakumar, "In-situ Synthesis of Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Ceramics Using Microwave Irradiation," Mater. Chem. Phys., 71 272-78 (2001).
Z. Shen, E. Adolfsson, M. Nygren, L. Gao, H. Kawaoka, and K. Niihara, "Dense Hydroxyapatite Composites with High Strength for Biological Applications," Adv. Mater., 13  214-16 (2001).
Y. -M. Kong, C. -J. Bae, S. -H. Lee, H. -W. Kim, and H. -E. Kim, "Improvement in Biocompatibility of $ZrO_2-Al_2O_3$ Nano-composite by Addition of HA," Biomaterials, 26 509-17 (2005).
S. Sakka, F. B. Ayed, and J. Bouaziz, "Mechanical Properties of Tricalcium Phosphate-alumina Composites," IOP Conference Series: Mater. Sci. Eng., 28  012028 (2012).
S. Sakka, J. Bouaziz, and F. B. Ayed, "Mechanical Properties of Biomaterials Based on Calcium Phosphates and Bioinert Oxides for Applications in Biomedicine," pp. 23-50 in Advances in Biomaterials Science and Biomedical Applications. Ed. by R. Pignatello, INTECH, 2013.
A. Priya, S. Nath, K. Biswas, and B. Basu, "In Vitro Dissolution of Calcium Phosphate-mullite Composite in Simulated Body Fluid," J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med., 21 1817-28 (2010).
J. -S. Ha and K. K. Chawla, "The Effect of Precursor Characteristics on the Crystallization and Densification of Diphasic Mullite Gels," Ceram. Int., 19 299-305 (1993).
S. -J. Lee, S. -I. Ko, M. -H. Lee, and N. -S. Oh, "Fabrication of Nano-sized β-TCP Powder by an Organic-inorganic Solution Route," J. Ceram. Proc. Res., 8  281-84 (2007).
H. -J. Kleebe, G. Pezzotti, and G. Ziegler, "Microstructure and Fracture Toughness of $Si_3N_4$ Ceramics: Combined Roles of Grain Morphology and Secondary Phase Chemistry," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 82  1857-67 (1999).
J. H. She and K. Ueno, "Effect of Additive Content on Liquid- phase Sintering on Silicon Carbide Ceramics," Mater. Res. Bull., 34 [10/11] 1629-36 (1999).