Improvement of Glaze Hardness in Commercial Bone China Kim, Hyeong-Jun; Han, Yoon Soo; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Da-Mi; Choi, Jae-Ho; Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Yoojin; Kim, Hyung-Tae;
In order to improve the hardness of commercial bone china, we attempted to control the glost firing temperature and apply a chemical strengthening process. When the glost firing time was longer or its temperature was higher than normal conditions, the hardness was improved by approximately 5%. The chemical strengthening process also enhanced the hardness of the glaze by more than 13% compared with bone china. It is believed that the enhancement of the hardness of the glaze was related to the development of residual compressive stress in the glaze due to 1) the increase in the calcium phosphate phase in the interface layer between the body and the glaze after firing, and 2) the increase of the concentration on the glaze surface during the chemical strengthening process.
Bone china;Glaze;Residual stress;Chemical strengthening;Hardness;
W. R. H. Ramsay, K. Sutton, and E. G. Ramsay, "Bow Porcelain: Glaze Compositions Associated with the Phosphatic Ware - 1742.1774," Proc. R. Soc. Victoria, 123  161-71 (2004).
S. A. F. Batista, P. F. Messer, and R. J. Hand, "Fracture Toughness of Bone China and Hard Porcelain," Br. Ceram. Trans., 10  256-59 (2001).
S. R. Braganca, C. P. Bergmannm, and H. Hubner, "Effect of Quartz Particle Size on the Strength of Triaxial Porcelain," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 26  3761-68 (2006).
G. Stathis, A. Ekonomakou, C. J. Stournaras, and C. Ftikos, "Effect of Firing Conditions, Filler Grain Size and Quartz Content on Bending Strength and Physical Properties of Sanitary Ware Porcelain," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 24  2357-66 (2004).
A. D. N. Junior, D. Hotza, V. C. Soler, and E. S. Vilches, "Analysis of The Development of Microscopic Residual Stresses Particles in Porcelain Tile," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 28  2629-37 (2008).
X. Cheng, S. Ke, Q. Wang, H. Wang, A. Shui, and P. Liu, "Characterization of Transparent Glaze for Single-Crystalline Anorthite Porcelain," Ceram. Int., 38  4901-8 (2012).
D. U. Tulyaganov, S. Agathopoulos, H. R. Fernandes, and J. M. F. Ferreira, "The Influence of Incorporation of ZnO-Containing Glazes on the Properties of Hard Porcelains," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 27 [2-3] 1665-70 (2007).
C. B. Ustundag, Y. K. Tur, and A. Capoglu, "Mechanical Behavior of A Low-Clay Translucent White Ware," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 26 [1-2] 169-77 (2006).
E. D. Spinosa and K. J. Davies, Lead-Free Glaze or Enamel For Use On Ceramic Bodies, US 5447891 A (1993).
Y. Tokunaga, Lead-free Frit Glaze, US 5362687 A (1992).
R. O. Knapp, "Low-Temperature Lead-Free Glaze for Alumina Ceramics"; US Patent 5,677,250 (October 17, 1994).
A. Kara and R. Stevens, "Interactions between an ABS Type Leadless Glaze And a Biscuit Fired Bone China Body During Glost Firing. Part II: Investigation of Interactions," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 22  1103-12 (2002).
V. Rosa, H. N. Yoshimura, M. M. Pinto, C. Fredericci, and P. F. Cesar, "Effect of Ion Exchange on Strength and Slow Crack Growth of a Dental Porcelain," Den. Mater., 25  736-43 (2009).
K. J. Anusavice, C. Shen, and R. B. Lee, "Strengthening of Feldspathic Porcelain by Ion Exchange and Tempering," J. Dent. Res., 71  1134-38 (1992).
D. H. Kim, J. H. Maeng, Y. S. Han, H. T. Kim, S. C. Choi, and H. J. Kim, "The Mechanical Properties of Porcelain with Thermally and Chemically Induced Residual Stress on Glaze," J. Korean Ceram. Soc., 51  487-91 (2014).
E. Cooper, D. Royle, Glaze for Potter, pp.104, Charles Scribner's sons, New York, 1978.
A. Kara and R. Stevens, "Interactions between an ABS Type Leadless Glaze and a Biscuit Fired Bone China Body During Glost Firing. Part I : Preparation of Experimental Phases," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 22  1095-102 (2002).
W. D. Kingery, "Factors Affecting Thermal Stress Resistance of Ceramic Materials," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 28  3-15 (1955).
A. Kara and R. Stevens, "Interactions Between a Leadless Glaze and a Biscuit Fired Bone China Body During Glost Firing. Part III: Effect of Glassy Matrix Phase," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 23  1617-82 (2003).
T. Ichiko, "A Consideration about the Glazing to the Bone China (in Japanese)," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn., 102  471-75 (1994).
H. J. Kim, D. H. Kim, D. M. Kim, J. H. Choi, Y. S. Han, S. M. Lee, and H. T. Kim, "The Generation of the Residual Stress in ABS Type Glaze of Commercial Bone China," J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., in press.
S. Reddy, A. K. Dubey, B. Basu, R. Guo, and A. S. Bhall, "Thermal Expansion Behavior of Biocompatible Hydroxyapatite-$BaTiO_3$ Composites for Bone Substitutes," Integrated Ferroelectrics, 131  147-52 (2011).
A. Capoglu, "Elimination of Discolouration in Reformulated Bone China Bodies," J. Euro. Ceram. Soc., 25 3157-64 (2005).
A. K. Varshneya and G. A. Dumais, "Influence of Externally Applied Stresses on Kinetics of Ion Exchange in Glass," J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 68  C165-66 (1985).
A. Kucuk, A. G. Clare, and L. E. Jones, "Differences Between Surface and Bulk Properties of Glass Melts I. Compositional Differences and Influence of Volatilization on Composition and Other Physical Properties," J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 261 [1-3] 28-38 (2000).