Three Dimensionally Ordered Microstructure of Polycrystalline TiO2 Ceramics with Micro/meso Porosity Chang, Myung Chul;
In order to make a highly ordered three-dimensional porous structure of titania ceramics, porogen beads of PS [Polystyrene] and PMMA [poly(methylmetacrylate)] were prepared by emulsion polymerization using styrene monomer and methyl methacrylate monomer, respectively. The uniform beads of PS or PMMA latex were closely packed by centrifugation as a porogen template for the infiltration of titanium butoxide solution. The mixed compound of PS or PMMA with titanium butoxide was dried and the dry compacts were calcined at according to the firing schedule to prepare micro- and meso- structures of polycrystalline titania with monodispersed porosity. Inorganic frameworks composed of were formed and showed a three Dimensionally Ordered Microstructure [3DOM] of ceramics. The pulverized particles of the ceramic skeleton were characterized using XRD analysis. A monodispersed crystalline micro-structure with micro/meso porosity was observed by FE-SEM with EDX analysis. The 3DOM skeleton showed opalescent color tuning according to the direction of light.
Novel three-dimensionally ordered macroporous Fe3+-doped TiO2 photocatalysts for H2 production and degradation applications, Applied Surface Science, 2017, 394, 248
A. L. Linsebigler, G. Q. Lu, and J. T. Yates, "Photocatalysis on $TiO_2$ Surfaces: Principles, Mechanisms, and Selected Results," Chem. Rev., 95  735-58 (1995).
B. O'Regan and M. Gratzel, "A Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cell based on Dye-Sensitized Colloidal $TiO_2$ Films," Nature, 353 737-40 (1991).
H. Wang, Y. Wu, and B. Q. Xu, "Preparation and Characterization of Nanosized Anatase $TiO_2$ Cuboids for Photocatalysis," Appl. Catal. B: Environmental, 59  139-46 (2005).
H. Yan, F. B. Christophe, T. H. Brian, H. S. William, and A. Stein, "General Synthesis of Periodic Macroporous Solids by Templated Salt Precipitation and Chemical Conversion," Chem. Mater., 12  1131-41 (2000).
A. Stein and R. C. Schroden, "Colloidal Crystal Templating of Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Solids: Materials for Photonics and Beyond," Curr. Opin. Solid St. M., 5  553-64 (2001).
R. C. Schroden and A. Stein, "3D Ordered Macroporous Materials," pp. 465-93 in Colloids and Colloid Assemblies: Synthesis, Modification, Organization and Utilization of Colloid Particles, Ed. by F. Caruso, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2003.
M. C. Chang, "Yttrium-Stabilized Zirconia Particles Prepared Using Electro-Dialysis of (Zr,Y)$OCl_2$ Aqueous Solution," J. Korean Ceram. Soc., 51  466-71 (2014).
M. C. Chang, "Three Dimensionally Ordered Microstructure of Monodispersed Zirconia Particles with Micro/Meso Porosity," J. Korean Ceram. Soc., 53  50-5 (2016).
K. M. Kulinowski, P. Jiang, H. Vaswani, and V. L. Colvin, "Porous Metals from Colloidal Templates," Adv. Mater. 12  833-38 (2000).
O. D. Velev and E. W. Kaler, "Structured Porous Materials via Colloidal Crystal Templating: from Inorganic Oxides to Metals," Adv. Mater., 12  531-34 (2000).
O. D. Velev and A. M. Lenhoff, "Colloidal Crystals as Templates for Porous Materials," Curr. Opin. Colloid In., 5  56-63 (2000).
A. Stein, "Sphere Templating Methods for Periodic Porous Solids," Micropor. Mesopor. Mat., 44-45 227-39 (2001).
B. T. Holland, C. F. Blanford, T. Do, and A. Stein, "Synthesis of Highly Ordered, Three-Dimensional, Macroporous Structures of Amorphous or Crystalline Inorganic Oxides, Phosphates, and Hybrid Composites," Chem. Mater., 11  795-805 (1999).
Z. Wang and A. Stein, "Morphology Control of Carbon, Silica, and Carbon/Silica Nanocomposites: From 3D Ordered Macro-/Mesoporous Monoliths to Shaped Mesoporous Particles," Chem. Mater., 20  1029-40 (2008).
N. T. Hunt, A. A. Jaye, A .Hellman, and S. R. Meech, "Ultrafast Dynamics of Styrene Micro-emulsions, Polystyrene Nano-latexes, and Structural Analogues of Polystyrene," J. Phys. Chem. B, 108  100-8 (2004).
X. J. Xu, P. Y. Chow, C. H. Quek, H. H. Hng, and L. M. Gan, "Nanoparticles of Polystyrene Latexes by Semi-continuous Micro-Emulsion Polymerization Using Mixed Surfactants," J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 3  235-40 (2003).
W. Ming, J. Zhao, X. Lu , C. Wang, S. Fu, "Novel Characteristics of Polystyrene Microspheres Prepared by Microemulsion Polymerization," Macromolecules, 29  7678-82 (1996).
P. Jiang, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, "A Lost-Wax Approach to Monodisperse Colloids and Their Crystals," Science, 291 453-57 (2001).
P. Jiang, K. S. Hwang, D. M. Mittleman, J. F. Bertone, and V. L. Colvin, "Template-Directed Preparation of Macroporous Polymers with Oriented and Crystalline Arrays of Voids," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 121  11630-37 (1999).
F. Li, W. C. Yoo, M. B. Beernink, and A. Stein, "Site-Specific Functionalization of Anisotropic Nanoparticles: From Colloidal Atoms to Colloidal Molecules," J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131  18548-55 (2009).
F. Li, Z. Wang, N. S. Ergang, C. A. Fyfe, and A. Stein, "Controlling the Shape and Alignment of Mesopores by Confinement in Colloidal Crystals: Designer Pathways to Silica Monoliths with Hierarchical Porosity," Langmuir, 23  3996-4004 (2007).
A. Stein, "Advances in Microporous and Mesoporous Solids: Highlights of Recent Progress," Adv. Mater., 15  763-75 (2003).
H. Yan, C. F. Blanford, W. H. Smyrl, and A. Stein, "Preparation and Structure of 3D Ordered Macroporous Alloys by PMMA Colloidal Crystal Templating," Chem. Commun., 2000  1477-78 (2000).
J. C. Lytle and A. Stein, "Recent Progress in Synthesis and Application of Inverse Opals and Related Macroporous Materials Prepared by Colloidal Crystal Templating," pp.1-79 in Annual Reviews of Nano Research, Vol. 1, Ed. by G. Cao and C. J. Brinker, World Scientific Publishing Co., 2006.
C. F. Blanford, R. C. Schroden, M. Al-Daous, and A. Stein, "Tuning Solvent-Dependent Color Changes of Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous (3DOM) Materials through Compositional and Geometric Modifications," Adv. Mater., 13  26-9 (2000).
C. F. Blanford, H. Yan, R. C. Schroden, M. Al-Daous, and A. Stein, "Gems of Chemistry and Physics: Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous (3DOM) Metal Oxides," Adv. Mater., 13  401-7 (2001).
R. C. Schroden, M. Al-Daous, C. F. Blanford, and A. Stein, "Optical Properties of Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals," Chem. Mater., 14  3305-15 (2002).
A. Stein, F. Li, and N. R. Denny, "Morphological Control in Colloidal Crystal Templating of Inverse Opals, Hierarchical Structures, and Shaped Particles," Chem. Mater., 20  649-66 (2008).
C. I. Aguirre, E. Reguera, and A. Stein, "Tunable Colors in Opals and Inverse Opal Photonic Crystals," J. Adv. Funct. Mater. 20  2565-78 (2010).
L. Vechot, J. E. H. Buston, J. Kay, G. A. Round, S. Masharani, G. A. Tickle, and R. Rowlands, "Experimental Study of the Liquid Phase Hydrolysis Reaction in Titanium Tetrachloride"; pp. 238-45 in Proceedings of the Hazards XXII conference. Inst. Chem. Eng., 2011.
Y. Chen, A. Lin, F. Gan, "Preparation of nano-$TiO_2$ from $TiCl_4$ by Dialysis Hydrolysis," Powder Technol., 167  109-16 (2006).