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Synergistic Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Sustainable Agricultural Production
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Synergistic Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria for Sustainable Agricultural Production
Ramasamy, Krishnamoorthy; Joe, Manoharan Melvin; Kim, Ki-Yoon; Lee, Seon-Mi; Shagol, Charlotte; Rangasamy, Anandham; Chung, Jong-Bae; Islam, Md. Rashedul; Sa, Tong-Min;
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Soil microorganisms play a major role in improving soil fertility and plant health. Symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) form a key component of the soil microbial populations. AMF form a mutualistic association with the host plant and exert a positive influence on its growth and nutrient uptake. The establishment of mycorrhizal symbioses with the host plant can positively be influenced by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria through various mechanisms such as increased spore germination and hyphal permeability in plant roots. Though there are evidences that combined interactions between AMF and PGPR can promote the plant growth however mechanisms of these interactions are poorly understood. Better understanding of the interactions between AMF and other microorganisms is necessary for maintaining soil fertility and enhancing crop production. This paper reviews current knowledge concerning the interactions between AMF and PGPR with plants and discusses on enhanced nutrient availability, biocontrol, abiotic stress tolerance and phytoremediation in sustainable agriculture.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi;Co-inoculation;Endosymbiotic bacteria;PGPR;Stress tolerance;
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