Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Application of LCA on Lettuce Cropping System by Bottom-up Methodology in Protected Cultivation
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Application of LCA on Lettuce Cropping System by Bottom-up Methodology in Protected Cultivation
Ryu, Jong-Hee; Kim, Kye-Hoon; Kim, Gun-Yeob; So, Kyu-Ho; Kang, Kee-Kyung;
  PDF(new window)
This study was conducted to apply LCA (Life cycle assessment) methodology to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production systems in Namyang-ju as a case study. Five lettuce growing farms with three different farming systems (two farms with organic farming system, one farm with a system without agricultural chemicals and two farms with conventional farming system) were selected at Namyangju city of Gyeonggi-province in Korea. The input data for LCA were collected by interviewing with the farmers. The system boundary was set at a cropping season without heating and cooling system for reducing uncertainties in data collection and calculation. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to find out the effect of type and amount of fertilizer and energy use on GHG (Greenhouse Gas) emission. The results of establishing GTG (Gate-to-Gate) inventory revealed that the quantity of fertilizer and energy input had the largest value in producing 1 kg lettuce, the amount of pesticide input the smallest. The amount of electricity input was the largest in all farms except farm 1 which purchased seedlings from outside. The quantity of direct field emission of , and from farm 1 to farm 5 were 6.79E-03 (farm 1), 8.10E-03 (farm 2), 1.82E-02 (farm 3), 7.51E-02 (farm 4) and 1.61E-02 (farm 5) kg lettuce, respectively. According to the result of LCI analysis focused on GHG, it was observed that emission was 2.92E-01 (farm 1), 3.76E-01 (farm 2), 4.11E-01 (farm 3), 9.40E-01 (farm 4) and (farm 5), respectively. Carbon dioxide contribute to the most GHG emission. Carbon dioxide was mainly emitted in the process of energy production, which occupied 67~91% of emission from every production process from 5 farms. Due to higher proportion of emission from production of compound fertilizer in conventional crop system, conventional crop system had lower proportion of emission from energy production than organic crop system did. With increasing inorganic fertilizer input, the process of lettuce cultivation covered higher proportion in emission. Therefore, farms 1 and 2 covered 87% of total emission; and farm 3 covered 64%. The carbon footprints from farm 1 to farm 5 were 3.40E-01 (farm 1), 4.31E-01 (farm 2), 5.32E-01 (farm 3), 1.08E+00 (farm 4) and 6.14E-01 (farm 5) kg -eq. lettuce, respectively. Results of sensitivity analysis revealed the soybean meal was the most sensitive among 4 types of fertilizer. The value of compound fertilizer was the least sensitive among every fertilizer imput. Electricity showed the largest sensitivity on emission. However, the value of variation was almost zero.
LCA;Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.);Carbon footprint;Namyang-ju;
 Cited by
관행농 쌀 생산체계의 탄소배출량 평가를 위한 전과정평가: top-down 방식의 국가평균값과 bottom-up 방식의 사례분석값 비교,유종희;정순철;김건엽;이종식;김계훈;

한국토양비료학회지, 2012. vol.45. 6, pp.1143-1152 crossref(new window)
쌀 생산체계에 대한 영농방법별 전과정평가: 관행농, 무농약, 유기농법별 탄소배출량 비교,유종희;권영립;김건엽;이종식;김계훈;소규호;

한국토양비료학회지, 2012. vol.45. 6, pp.1157-1163 crossref(new window)
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Conventional Rice Production System,;;;;;

한국토양비료학회지, 2013. vol.46. 6, pp.502-509 crossref(new window)
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Rice Production System in Farming without Agricultural Chemicals,;;;;;

한국토양비료학회지, 2014. vol.47. 5, pp.374-380 crossref(new window)
Life Cylcle Assessment (LCA) on Rice Production Systems: Comparison of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) Emission on Conventional, Without Agricultural Chemical and Organic Farming, Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 2012, 45, 6, 1157  crossref(new windwow)
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) for Evaluating Carbon Emission from Conventional Rice Cultivation System: Comparison of Top-down and Bottom-up Methodology, Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 2012, 45, 6, 1143  crossref(new windwow)
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Rice Production System in Farming without Agricultural Chemicals, Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 2014, 47, 5, 374  crossref(new windwow)
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Conventional Rice Production System, Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 2013, 46, 6, 502  crossref(new windwow)
Ahn, S.J. 2005. Stochastic analysis for uncertainty of life cycle assessment with Monte-Carlo simulation. M.S. University of Ajou, Korea. pp. 7-9, 29-30.

Amlinger, F., S. Peyr, and C. Cuhls. 2008. Greenhouse gas emission from composting and mechnical biological treatment, Waste Manage Res 26(1):47-60. crossref(new window)

de Boer, I.J.M. 2003. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production. Livestock Production Science 80:69-77. crossref(new window)

Hanegraaf, M.C., E.E. Biewinga, and G. van der Bul. 1998. Assessing the ecologycal and economic sustainability of energy crops. Biomass and Bioenergy 15(4/5):345-355. crossref(new window)

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 1996. IPCC Good practice guidance and uncertainty management in national greenhouse gas inventories.

KFIA (Korea Fertilizer Industry Association). 2007. fertilizer production data. Korea Fertilizer Industry Association. Seoul, Korea.

KWA (Korea Waste Association). 2007. Agricultural waste data. Korea Waste Association. Seoul, Korea.

MAFF (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries). 2003. Development of Life Cycle Assessment methodology for environment impact assessment. National Institute for Agro-Envrionmental Sciences, Japan.

Mia i Canals, L., G.M. Burnip, and S.J. Cowell. 2006. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple production using life cycle assessment: case study in New Zealand. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 114:226-238. crossref(new window)

MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheres). 2004. A study on establishing effective management system for equipped agricultural input wastes. C2004-A1. Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheres. Seoul, Korea.

MKE (Ministry of Knowledge Economy). Software program PASS v4.1.

NAIS (Namyangju-si Agricultural Technology Center). 2009. The status of local agriculture. http//

Park. J.A., S.C. Jung, J.H. Huh, K.H. So, and K.A. Roh. 2010. Life Cycle Assessment for open field and greenhouse peppers. Journal of the Korean society for life cycle assessment 11(1):91-102.

Peterson, S.O., K. Regina, A. Pollinger, E. Rigler, L. Valli, S. Yamulki, M. Esala, C. Fabbri, E. Syasalo, and F.P. Vinther. 2006. Nitrous oxide emissions from organic and conventional crop rotation in five European countries. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment 112:200-206. crossref(new window)

Pluimers, J.C., C. Kroeze, E.J. Bakker, H. Challa, and L. Hordijk. 2000. Quantifying the environmental impact of production in agriculture and horticulture in The Netherlands: which emissions do we need to consider? Agricultural Systems 66:167-189. crossref(new window)

RDA (Rural Development Administration). 2009. Rice cropping technology for greenhouse gas reduction. National Institute of Animal Science. pp. 11.

Shin, S.M. 2008. Life cycle assessment and improvement of green-roof considering materials for maintenance. master's thesis, KAIST, Korea. pp. 19, 28-30, 40-41.

Simapro software v7.2, ecoinvent process system.

So, K.H., J.A. Park, G.Z. Lee, K.M. Shim, J.H. Ryu, and K.A. Roh. 2010. Estimation of Carbon Emission and Application of LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) from Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Production System. Korean J. Soil. Sci. 43(5):716-721.

So, K.H., J.A. Park, J.H. Huh, K.M. Shim, J.H. Ryu, G.Y. Kim, H.C. Cheol, and D.B. Lee. 2010. Estimation of Carbon Emission and LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Production System. Korean J. Soil. Sci. 43(6): 904-910.