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Spore Associated Bacteria (SAB) of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Increase Nutrient Uptake and Plant Growth Under Stress Conditions
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 Title & Authors
Spore Associated Bacteria (SAB) of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) Increase Nutrient Uptake and Plant Growth Under Stress Conditions
Gopal, Selvakumar; Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Shagol, Charlotte; Kim, Ki-Yoon; Sa, Tong-Min;
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Microorganisms present in the rhizosphere soil plays a vital role in improving the plant growth and soil fertility. Many kinds of fertilizers including chemical and organic has been approached to improve the productivity. Though some of them showed significant improvement in yield, they failed to maintain the soil properties. Rather they negatively affected soil eventually, the land became unsuitable for agricultural. To overcome these problems, microorganisms have been used as effective alternative. For past few decades, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have been used as effective inoculants to enhance the plant growth and productivity. PGPR improves the plant growth and helps the plant to withstand biotic and abiotic stresses. AM fungi are known to colonize roots of plants and they increase the plant nutrient uptake. Spore associated bacteria (SAB) are attached to spore wall or hyphae and known to increase the AMF germination and root colonization but their mechanism of interaction is poorly known. Better understanding the interactions among AMF, SAB and PGPR are necessary to enhance the quality of inoculants as a biofertilizers. In this paper, current knowledge about the interactions between fungi and bacteria are reviewed and discussed about AMF spore associated bacteria.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi;Spore associated bacteria;PGPR;Co-inoculation;Stress tolerance;
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