JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) for Evaluating Carbon Emission from Conventional Rice Cultivation System: Comparison of Top-down and Bottom-up Methodology
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) for Evaluating Carbon Emission from Conventional Rice Cultivation System: Comparison of Top-down and Bottom-up Methodology
Ryu, Jong-Hee; Jung, Soon Chul; Kim, Gun-Yeob; Lee, Jong-Sik; Kim, Kye-Hoon;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
We established a top-down methodology to estimate carbon footprint as national mean value (reference) with the statistical data on agri-livestock incomes in 2007. We also established LCI (life cycle inventory) DB by a bottom-up methodology with the data obtained from interview with farmers from 4 large-scale farms at Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do province to estimate carbon footprint in 2011. This study was carried out to compare top-down methodology and bottom-up methodology in performing LCA (life cycle assessment) to analyze the difference in GHGs (greenhouse gases) emission and carbon footprint under conventional rice cultivation system. Results of LCI analysis showed that most of was emitted during fertilizer production and rice cultivation, whereas and were mostly emitted during rice cultivation. The carbon footprints on conventional rice production system were 2.39E+00 kg -eq. by top-down methodology, whereas 1.04E+00 kg -eq. by bottom-up methodology. The amount of agro-materials input during the entire rice cultivation for the two methodologies was similar. The amount of agro-materials input for the bottom-up methodology was sometimes greater than that for top-down methodology. While carbon footprint by the bottom-up methodology was smaller than that by the top-down methodology due to higher yield per cropping season by the bottom-up methodology. Under the conventional rice production system, fertilizer production showed the highest contribution to the environmental impacts on most categories except GWP (global warming potential) category. Rice cultivation was the highest contribution to the environmental impacts on GWP category under the conventional rice production system. The main factors of carbon footprints under the conventional rice production system were emission from rice paddy field, the amount of fertilizer input and rice yield. Results of this study will be used for establishing baseline data for estimating carbon footprint from 'low carbon certification pilot project' as well as for developing farming methods of reducing emission from rice paddy fields.
 Keywords
Carbon footprint;LCA;Conventional rice production system;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
1.
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Conventional Rice Production System,;;;;;

한국토양비료학회지, 2013. vol.46. 6, pp.502-509 crossref(new window)
2.
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Rice Production System in Farming without Agricultural Chemicals,;;;;;

한국토양비료학회지, 2014. vol.47. 5, pp.374-380 crossref(new window)
3.
'탄소발자국' 개념의 발전 과정과 농림 부문에서의 활용 전망,최성원;김학영;김준;

한국농림기상학회지, 2015. vol.17. 4, pp.358-383 crossref(new window)
1.
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Conventional Rice Production System, Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 2013, 46, 6, 502  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Effect of By-Product Gypsum Fertilizer on Methane Gas Emissions and Rice Productivity in Paddy Field, Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 2016, 49, 1, 30  crossref(new windwow)
3.
Development of 'Carbon Footprint' Concept and Its Utilization Prospects in the Agricultural and Forestry Sector, Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 2015, 17, 4, 358  crossref(new windwow)
4.
A Case Study to Estimate the Greenhouse-Gas Mitigation Potential on Rice Production System in Farming without Agricultural Chemicals, Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, 2014, 47, 5, 374  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Bllengini, G.A., and M. Busto. 2009. The life cycle of rice; LCA of alternative agri-food chain management system in Vercelli (Italy). J. Environ. Manag. 90:1512-1522. crossref(new window)

2.
de Boer, I.J.M. 2003. Environmental impact assessment of conventional and organic milk production. Livestock Production Science 80:69-77. crossref(new window)

3.
Deurer, M., B. Clothier, K.Y. Huh, G.I. Jun, I. Kim, and D. Kim. 2011. Trends and interpretation of life cycle assessment (LCA) for carbon footprinting of fruit products: focused on kiwifruits in gyeongnam region. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 29(5):389-406

4.
Hokazono, S., and K. Hayashi. 2012. Variability in environmental impacts during conversion from conventional to organic farming: a comparison among three rice production systems in Japan. J. Cleaner Prod. 28:101-112. crossref(new window)

5.
Huh, K.Y., M. Deurer, S. Sivakumaran, K. McAuliffe, and N.S. Bolan. 2008. Carbon sequestration in urban landscapes: The example of a turfgrass system in New Zealand. Austral. J. Soil Res. 46:610-616. crossref(new window)

6.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization), 1997. Environmental management-life cycle assessment-principles and framework. International Standard ISO 14040, ISO, Geneva.

7.
Jeong, H.C., G.Y. Kim, D.B. Lee, K.M. Shim, and K.K. Kang. 2011. Assessment of greenhpuse gases emission of agronomic sector between 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 44(6):1214-1219. crossref(new window)

8.
Jeong, H.C., G.Y. Kim, D.B. Lee, K.M. Shim, S.B. Lee, and K.K. Kang. 2011. Assessment on nitrous oxide ($N_{2}O$) emission of Korea agricultural soils in 2009. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 44(6):1207-1213. crossref(new window)

9.
Jung, S.H., J.A. Park, J.H. Huh, and K.H. So. 2011. Estimation of greenhouse gas emission of complex fertilizers production system by using life cycle assessment. Korean. J. Soil. Sci. Fert. 44(2):256-262. crossref(new window)

10.
KWA (Korea Waste Association). 2007. Agricultural waste data. Korea Waste Association. Seoul, Korea.

11.
MIFAFF (Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheres). 2004. A study on establishing effective management system for equipped agricultural input wastes. C2004-A1. Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheres. Seoul, Korea.

12.
MKE (Ministry of Knowledge Economy). Software program PASS v 4.1.3.

13.
RDA (Rural Development Administration). 2008. 2007 Agro-livestock data book. Rural Development Administration. Suwon, Korea.

14.
Ryu, J.H., K.H. Kim, G.Y. Kim, K.H. So, and K.K. Kang. 2011. Application of LCA on lettuce cropping system by bottom-up methodology in protected cultivation. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 44(6):1195-1206. crossref(new window)

15.
Ryu, J.H., K.H. Kim, K.H. So, G.Z. Lee, G.Y. Kim, and D.B. Lee. 2011. LCA on lettuce cropping system by top-down method in protected cultivation. Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. 44(6):1185-1194. crossref(new window)

16.
Tukker, A. 2000. Life cycle assessment as a tool in environmental impact assessment. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 20:435-456. crossref(new window)

17.
van Zeijts, H., H. Leheman, and A.W. Sleeswijk. 1999. Fitting fertilisation in LCA: allocation to carops in a cropping plan. J. Cleaner Prod. 7:69-74. crossref(new window)

18.
Walmart. 2011. www.walmartstores.com.

19.
Yoon, S.Y., Y.R. Kim, T.H. Kim, J.H. Park, and S.W. Ahn. 2012. Study of garlic's carbon footprint though LCA. Korean J. Org. Agri. 20(2): 161-172.