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Effects of Cadmium and Arsenic on Physiological Responses and Copper and Zinc Homeostasis of Rice
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 Title & Authors
Effects of Cadmium and Arsenic on Physiological Responses and Copper and Zinc Homeostasis of Rice
Jung, Ha-il; Chae, Mi-Jin; Kim, Sun-Joong; Kong, Myung-Suk; Kang, Seong-Soo; Lee, Deog-Bae; Ju, Ho-Jong; Kim, Yoo-Hak;
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Heavy metals reduce the photosynthetic efficiency and disrupt metabolic reactions in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, by replacing the metal ions in metalloproteins that use essential metal ions, such as Cu, Zn, Mn, and Fe, as co-factors, heavy metals ultimately lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These, in turn, cause destruction of the cell membrane through lipid peroxidation, and eventually cause the plant to necrosis. Given the aforementioned factors, this study was aimed to understand the physiological responses of rice to cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) toxicity and the effect of essential metal ions on homeostasis. In order to confirm the level of physiological inhibition caused by heavy metal toxicity, hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Dongjin) plants were exposed with cadmium (Cd, ) and arsenic (As, ) at 3-leaf stage, and then investigated malondialdehyde (MDA) contents after 7 days of the treatment. With increasing concentrations of Cd and As, the MDA content in leaf blade and root increased with a consistent trend. At 14 days after treatment with Cd and As, plant height showed no significant difference between Cd and As, with an identical reduction. However, As caused a greater decline than Cd for shoot fresh weight, dry weight, and water content. The largest amounts of Cd and As were found in the roots and also observed a large amount of transport to the leaf sheath. Interestingly, in terms of Cd transfer to the shoot parts of the plant, it was only transported to upper leaf blades, and we did not detect any Cd in lower leaf blades. However, As was transferred to a greater level in lower leaf blades than in upper leaf blades. In the roots, Cd inhibited Zn absorption, while As inhibited Cu uptake. Furthermore, in the leaf sheath, while Cd and As treatments caused no change in Cu homeostasis, they had an antagonist effect on the absorption of Zn. Finally, in both upper and lower leaf blades, Cd and As toxicity was found to inhibit absorption of both Cu and Zn. Based on these results, it would be considered that heavy metal toxicity causes an increase in lipid peroxidation. This, in turn, leads to damage to the conductive tissue connecting the roots, leaf sheath, and leaf blades, which results in a reduction in water content and causes several physiological alterations. Furthermore, by disrupting homeostasis of the essential metal ions, Cu and Zn, this causes complete heavy metal toxicity.
Heavy metal;Cadmium;Arsenic;Ions homeostasis;Rice;
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