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An Overview of Different Techniques on the Microbial Community Structure, and Functional Diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria
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 Title & Authors
An Overview of Different Techniques on the Microbial Community Structure, and Functional Diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria
Kim, Kiyoon; Islam, Rashedul; Benson, Abitha; Joe, Manoharan Melvin; Denver, Walitang; Chanratan, Mak; Chatterjee, Poulami; Kang, Yeongyeong; Sa, Tongmin;
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Soil is a dynamic biological system, in which it is difficult to determine the composition of microbial communities. Knowledge of microbial diversity and function in soils are limited because of the taxonomic and methodological limitations associated with studying the organisms. In this review, approaches to measure microbial diversity in soil were discussed. Research on soil microbes can be categorized as structural diversity, functional diversity and genetic diversity studies, and these include cultivation based and cultivation independent methods. Cultivation independent technique to evaluate soil structural diversity include different techniques such as Phospholipid Fatty Acids (PLFA) and Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) analysis. Carbon source utilization pattern of soil microorganisms by Community Level Physiological Profiling (CLPP), catabolic responses by Substrate Induced Respiration technique (SIR) and soil microbial enzyme activities are discussed. Genetic diversity of soil microorganisms using molecular techniques such as 16S rDNA analysis Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) / Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE), Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP), Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) / Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA) and Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA) are also discussed. The chapter ends with a final conclusion on the advantages and disadvantages of different techniques and advances in molecular techniques to study the soil microbial diversity.
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