JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Merging the old with the new: a cybermedicine marriage for oncology interactions with traditional herbal therapies and complementary medicines
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : TANG [HUMANITAS MEDICINE]
  • Volume 2, Issue 2,  2012, pp.18.1-18.16
  • Publisher : Association of Humanitas Medicine
  • DOI : 10.5667/tang.2012.0004
 Title & Authors
Merging the old with the new: a cybermedicine marriage for oncology interactions with traditional herbal therapies and complementary medicines
Yap, Kevin Yi-Lwern; Lim, Ken Juin;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
An oncology-specific database called OncoRx (http://bit.ly/cancerRx) was previously set up in cyberspace to aid clinicians in identifying interactions of anticancer drugs (ACDs) and chemotherapy regimens with traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs). Since then, users have requested the drug-CAM interactions (DCIs) of 5 specific CAMs (cranberry, melatonin, co-enzyme Q10, huachansu, reishi mushroom) to be updated in the database. Pharmacokinetic properties (metabolism, enzyme induction/inhibition, elimination), TCM properties and DCIs of each CAM were collated with 117 ACDs using 9 hardcopy compendia and online databases as resources. Additionally, individual ACDs and CAMs were used as keywords for PubMed searches in combination with the terms 'anticancer drugs', 'drug interactions', 'herb-drug/drug-herb interactions', 'pharmacokinetic interactions' and 'pharmacodynamic interactions'. DCI parameters consisted of interaction effects, evidence summaries, proposed management plans and alternative non-interacting CAMs, together with relevant citations and update dates of the DCIs. OncoRx is also used as a case to introduce the "Four Pharmaco-cybernetic Maxims" of quality, quantity, relationship and manner to developers of digital healthcare tools. Its role in Hayne's "5S" hierarchy of research evidence is also presented. OncoRx is meant to complement existing DCI resources for clinicians and alternative medicine practitioners as an additional drug information resource that provides evidence-based DCI information for ACD-CAM interactions.
 Keywords
traditional Chinese medicines;complementary medicines;anticancer drugs;drug-CAM interactions;digital healthcare;pharmaco-cybernetic maxims;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
한 대학병원 위암수술 환자의 재발에 영향을 주는 요인,이태용;김현근;

한국산학기술학회논문지, 2011. vol.12. 11, pp.5094-5101 crossref(new window)
 References
1.
Ahmadi K, Riazipour M. Effect of Ganoderma lucidum on cytokine release by peritoneal macrophages. Iran J Immunol. 2007;4(4):220-226.

2.
Baker L, Wagner TH, Singer S, Bundorf MK. Use of the internet and e-mail for health care information: results from a national survey. JAMA. 2003;289:2400-2406. crossref(new window)

3.
Belardinelli R, Mucaj A, Lacalaprice F, Solenghi M, Seddaiu G, Principi F, Tiano L, Littarru GP. Coenzyme Q10 and exercise training in chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2006;27(22):2675-2681. crossref(new window)

4.
Boles RG, Lovett-Barr MR, Preston A, Li BU, Adams K. Treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome with co-enzyme Q10 and amitriptyline, a retrospective study. BMC Neurol. 2010;10:10. crossref(new window)

5.
Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. Ixempra (ixabepilone) for injection [product information]. Princeton, NJ; 2010.

6.
British Medical Association, Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. British National Formulary. 53rd Ed (London, UK: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & RPS Publishing), 2007.

7.
Brzezinski A. Melatonin in humans. N Engl J Med. 1997;336(3):186-195. crossref(new window)

8.
Cao LZ, Lin ZB. Comparison of the effects of polysaccharides from wood-cultured and bag-cultured Ganoderma lucidum on murine spleen lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2003;38(2):92-97.

9.
Caroleo MC, Frasca D, Nistico G, Doria G. Melatonin as immunomodulator in immunodeficient mice. Immunopharmacology. 1992;23(2):81-89. crossref(new window)

10.
Chan A, Yap KY-L, Tan SH, Low XH. Efficacy of antiemetics in patients receiving XELOX - A single-centre, prospective study. EJC supplements. 2011;9(1):17.

11.
Chang L-C, Li I-C. Patterns of complementary therapy use by homebound cancer patients in Taiwan. Appl Nurs Res. 2004;17(1):41-47. crossref(new window)

12.
Chen HS, Tsai YF, Lin S, Lin CC, Khoo KH, Lin CH, Wong CH. Studies on the immuno-modulating and anti-tumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides. Bioorg Med Chem. 2004;12(21):5595-5601. crossref(new window)

13.
Chen NH, Liu JW, Zhong JJ. Ganoderic acid Me inhibits tumor invasion through down-regulating matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 gene expression. J Pharmacol Sci. 2008;108(2):212-216. crossref(new window)

14.
Chow WH, Chang P, Lee SC, Wong A, Shen HM, Verkooijen HM. Complementary and alternative medicine among Singapore cancer patients. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2010;39(2):129-135.

15.
Clarke SJ, McLachlan AJ, Brown D, Carbonara S, Kissane R. Beyond conventional cancer treatments: The use of complementary therapies during cancer treatment: Implications for clinicians. In When Cancer Crosses Disciplines: A Physician's Handbook, Robotin M, Olver I, Girgis A eds. (London, UK: Imperial College Press), pp. 285-316, 2010.

16.
Combs AB, Choe JY, Truong DH, Folkers K. Reduction by coenzyme Q10 of the acute toxicity of adriamycin in mice. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1977;18(3):565-568.

17.
Conklin KA. Coenzyme q10 for prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity. Integr Cancer Ther. 2005;4(2):110-130. crossref(new window)

18.
DiGianni LM, Garber JE, Winer EP. Complementary and alternative medicine use among women with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2002;20(18):34s-38s.

19.
e-MS Inc. TCM Assistant. http://www.tcmassistant.com/index.html. Accessed 10 January 2011.

20.
Ferguson PJ, Kurowska E, Freeman DJ, Chambers AF, Koropatnick DJ. A flavonoid fraction from cranberry extract inhibits proliferation of human tumor cell lines. J Nutr. 2004;134(6):1529-1535.

21.
Ferguson PJ, Kurowska EM, Freeman DJ, Chambers AF, Koropatnick J. In vivo inhibition of growth of human tumor lines by flavonoid fractions from cranberry extract. Nutr Cancer. 2006;56(1):86-94. crossref(new window)

22.
Fua LN, Beh J, Sen VA. Oncology drug database greatly benefits elderly cancer patients. NUS Knowledge Enterprise. 2011;11(3):6.

23.
Gao L, Wu X. Comparison of traditional Chinese medicine with Western medicine cancer therapy. Chinese J Clin Oncol. 2008;5(3):231-234. crossref(new window)

24.
Gao Y, Dai X, Chen G, Ye J, Zhou S. A randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study of Ganoderma lucidum (W.Curt.:Fr.) Lloyd (Aphyllophoromycetideae) polysaccharides (Ganopoly) in patients with advanced lung cancer. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2003a;5(4):49-62. crossref(new window)

25.
Gao Y, Zhou S, Chen G, Dai X, Ye J. A phase I/II study of a Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr.) P. Karst. extract (Ganopofy) in patients with advanced cancer. Int J Med Mushrooms. 2002;4(3):21-28.

26.
Gao Y, Zhou S, Jiang W, Huang M, Dai X. Effects of ganopoly (a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide extract) on the immune functions in advanced-stage cancer patients. Immunol Invest. 2003b;32(3):201-215. crossref(new window)

27.
Gerstner Jr. LV. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center - cancer information (about herbs, botanicals and other products). http://www.mskcc.org/mskcc/html/11570.cfm. Accessed 10 January 2011.

28.
Gonzalez A, Alvarez-Garcia V, Martinez-Campa C, Mediavilla MD, Alonso-Gonzalez C, Sanchez-Barcelo EJ, Cos S. In vivo inhibition of the estrogen sulfatase enzyme and growth of DMBA-induced mammary tumors by melatonin. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2010;10(3):279-286. crossref(new window)

29.
Grant P. Warfarin and cranberry juice: an interaction? J Heart Valve Dis. 2004;13(1):25-26.

30.
Greenberg S, Frishman WH. Co-enzyme Q10: a new drug for cardiovascular disease. J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;30(7):596-608. crossref(new window)

31.
Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perloff ES, Luo Y, Harmatz JS, Zinny MA. Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006;79(1):125-133. crossref(new window)

32.
Griffiths AP, Beddall A, Pegler S. Fatal haemopericardium and gastrointestinal haemorrhage due to possible interaction of cranberry juice with warfarin. J R Soc Promot Health. 2008;128(6):324-326. crossref(new window)

33.
Gruenwald J, Brendler T, Jaenicke C eds. Physicians' Desk Reference (PDR) for Herbal Medicines. 4th Ed (Montvale, NJ: Thomson Healthcare Inc.), 2007.

34.
Haldar C, Rai S, Singh R. Melatonin blocks dexamethasone-induced immunosuppression in a seasonally breeding rodent Indian palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti. Steroids. 2004;69(6):367-377. crossref(new window)

35.
Hamann GL, Campbell JD, George CM. Warfarin-cranberry juice interaction. Ann Pharmacother. 2011;45(3):e17. crossref(new window)

36.
Han H-B, Chen J-Y, Yuan Y, Liang D-M, Zhang Y. The effect of cinobufacin combined with 5-FU on inhibiting proliferation and inducting apoptosis of human gastric carcinoma cells. Chinese Journal of General Surgery. 2006;9:4.

37.
Hashimoto S, Jing Y, Kawazoe N, Masuda Y, Nakajo S, Yoshida T, Kuroiwa Y, Nakaya K. Bufalin reduces the level of topoisomerase II in human leukemia cells and affects the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. Leuk Res. 1997;21(9):875-883. crossref(new window)

38.
Haynes RB. Of studies, syntheses, synopses, summaries, and systems: the "5S" evolution of information services for evidence-based healthcare decisions. Evid Based Med. 2006;11(6):162-164.

39.
Hsiao WL, Liu L. The role of traditional Chinese herbal medicines in cancer therapy - from TCM theory to mechanistic insights. Planta Med. 2010;76(11):1118-1131. crossref(new window)

40.
Hsu MJ, Lee SS, Lin WW. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72(1):207-216.

41.
Huang KC. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs. 2nd Ed (Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press), 1999.

42.
Hyodo I, Amano N, Eguchi K, Narabayashi M, Imanishi J, Hirai M, Nakano T, Takashima S. Nationwide survey on complementary and alternative medicine in cancer patients in Japan. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(12):2645-2654.

43.
Janssen Inc. Yondelis (trabectedin) for injection [product information]. Toronto, Ontario; 2011.

44.
Jellin JM, Gregory PJ. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. 10th Ed (Stockton, CA: Therapeutic Research Faculty), 2007.

45.
Ji Z, Tang Q, Zhang J, Yang Y, Jia W, Pan Y. Immunomodulation of RAW264.7 macrophages by GLIS, a proteopolysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112(3):445-450. crossref(new window)

46.
Jiang Y, Zhang Y, Luan J, Duan H, Zhang F, Yagasaki K, Zhang G. Effects of bufalin on the proliferation of human lung cancer cells and its molecular mechanisms of action. Cytotechnology. 2010;62(6):573-583. crossref(new window)

47.
Kim KC, Jun HJ, Kim JS, Kim IG. Enhancement of radiation response with combined Ganoderma lucidum and Duchesnea chrysantha extracts in human leukemia HL-60 cells. Int J Mol Med. 2008;21(4):489-498.

48.
Kummervold PE, Chronaki CE, Lausen B, Prokosch H-U, Rasmussen J, Santana S, Staniszewski A, Wangberg SC. EHealth trends in Europe 2005-2007: a population-based survey. J Med Internet Res. 2008;10(4):e42. crossref(new window)

49.
Lacy CF, Armstrong LL, Goldman MP, Lance LL. Drug Information Handbook with International Trade Names Index. 15th Ed (Hudson, OH: Lexi-comp Inc.), 2007-2008.

50.
Leja-Szpak A, Jaworek J, Pierzchalski P, Reiter RJ. Melatonin induces pro-apoptotic signaling pathway in human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). J Pineal Res. 2010;49(3):248-255. crossref(new window)

51.
Li HY, Xu W, Zhang X, Zhang WD, Hu LW. Bufalin inhibits CYP3A4 activity in vitro and in vivo. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009;30(5):646-652. crossref(new window)

52.
Li YB, Wang R, Wu HL, Li YH, Zhong LJ, Yu HM, Li XJ. Serum amyloid A mediates the inhibitory effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on tumor cell adhesion to endothelial cells. Oncol Rep. 2008;20(3):549-556.

53.
Lilja JJ, Backman JT, Neuvonen PJ. Effects of daily ingestion of cranberry juice on the pharmacokinetics of warfarin, tizanidine, and midazolam - probes of CYP2C9, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007;81(6):833-839. crossref(new window)

54.
Lim MK, Sadarangani P, Chan HL, Heng JY. Complementary and alternative medicine use in multiracial Singapore. Complement Ther Med. 2005;13(1):16-24. crossref(new window)

55.
Lin KI, Kao YY, Kuo HK, Yang WB, Chou A, Lin HH, Yu AL, Wong CH. Reishi polysaccharides induce immunoglobulin production through the TLR4/TLR2-mediated induction of transcription factor Blimp-1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281(34):24111-24123. crossref(new window)

56.
Lissoni P. Is there a role for melatonin in supportive care? Support Care Cancer. 2002;10(2):110-116. crossref(new window)

57.
Lissoni P, Barni S, Mandala M, Ardizzoia A, Paolorossi F, Vaghi M, Longarini R, Malugani F, Tancini G. Decreased toxicity and increased efficacy of cancer chemotherapy using the pineal hormone melatonin in metastatic solid tumour patients with poor clinical status. Eur J Cancer. 1999;35(12):1688-1692. crossref(new window)

58.
Lissoni P, Barni S, Tancini G, Rovelli F, Ardizzoia A, Conti A, Maestroni GJ. A study of the mechanisms involved in the immunostimulatory action of the pineal hormone in cancer patients. Oncology. 1993;50(6):399-402. crossref(new window)

59.
Lissoni P, Tancini G, Barni S, Paolorossi F, Ardizzoia A, Conti A, Maestroni G. Treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced toxicity with the pineal hormone melatonin. Support Care Cancer. 1997;5(2):126-129. crossref(new window)

60.
Macek C. East meets West to balance immunologic yin and yang. JAMA. 1984;251(4):433-435, 439. crossref(new window)

61.
Mansky PJ, Wallerstedt DB. Complementary medicine in palliative care and cancer symptom management. Cancer J. 2006;12:425-431. crossref(new window)

62.
Mao T, van De Water J, Keem CL, Stern JS, Hackman R, Gershwin ME. Two mushrooms, Grifola frondosa and Ganoderma lucidum, can stimulate cytokine gene expression and proliferation in human T lymphocytes. Int J Immunother. 1999;15(1):13-22.

63.
Martin-Renedo J, Mauriz JL, Jorquera F, Ruiz-Andres O, Gonzalez P, Gonzalez-Gallego J. Melatonin induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cell line. J Pineal Res. 2008;45(4):532-540. crossref(new window)

64.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Coenzyme Q10. http://www.mskcc.org/mskcc/html/69186.cfm. Accessed 12 September 2011.

65.
Meng Z, Yang P, Shen Y, Bei W, Zhang Y, Ge Y, Newman RA, Cohen L, Liu L, Thornton B, et al. Pilot study of huachansu in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, nonsmall-cell lung cancer, or pancreatic cancer. Cancer. 2009;115(22):5309-5318. crossref(new window)

66.
Nahleh Z, Tabbara IA. Complementary and alternative medicine in breast cancer patients. Palliat Support Care. 2003;1(3):267-273.

67.
National Institutes of Health. Medline Plus Herbs and Supplements. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/herb_All.html. Accessed 12 September 2011.

68.
National Institutes of Health, National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Health topics A-Z. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/atoz.htm. Accessed 12 September 2011.

69.
Neto CC, Amoroso JW, Liberty AM. Anticancer activities of cranberry phytochemicals: an update. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008;52 Suppl 1:S18-27.

70.
Ngo N, Yan ZX, Graf TN, Carrizosa DR, Kashuba ADM, Dees EC, Oberlies NH, Paine MF. Identification of a cranberry juice product that inhibits enteric CYP3A-mediated first-pass metabolism in humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37(3):514-522. crossref(new window)

71.
Oldendick R, Coker AL, Wieland D, Raymond JI, Probst JC, Schell BJ, Stoskopf CH. Population-based survey of complementary and alternative medicine usage, patient satisfaction, and physician involvement. South Carolina Complementary Medicine Program Baseline Research Team. South Med J. 2000;93:375-381. crossref(new window)

72.
Ortiz-Lopez L, Morales-Mulia S, Ramirez-Rodriguez G, Benítez-King G. ROCK-regulated cytoskeletal dynamics participate in the inhibitory effect of melatonin on cancer cell migration. J Pineal Res. 2009;46(1):15-21. crossref(new window)

73.
OSI Pharmaceuticals Inc. Tarceva (erlotinib hydrochloride) tablets [product information]. Melville, NY; 2008.

74.
Paeng CH, Sprague M, Jackevicius CA. Interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. Clin Ther. 2007;29(8):1730-1735. crossref(new window)

75.
Park JW, Hwang MS, Suh SI, Baek WK. Melatonin down-regulates HIF-1 alpha expression through inhibition of protein translation in prostate cancer cells. J Pineal Res. 2009;46(4):415-421. crossref(new window)

76.
Poon CH. Cancer drug database may protect patients. The Straits Times 2011;Sect. Home:B2. http://www.straitstimes.com/Singapore/Story/STIStory_707047 .html. Accessed 30 August 2011.

77.
Poon S, Poon J, Chan K, Loy C, Zhou X, Zhang R, Liu B, Kwan P, Sze D, Gao J. Analysis of synergistic and antagonistic effects of TCM: Cases on diabetes and insomnia: Paper presented at: IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedicine Workshops; 18 December, 2010; Hong Kong.

78.
Qi F, Li A, Inagaki Y, Kokudo N, Tamura S, Nakata M, Tang W. Antitumor activity of extracts and compounds from the skin of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011;11(3):342-349. crossref(new window)

79.
Qin TJ, Zhao XH, Yun J, Zhang LX, Ruan ZP, Pan BR. Efficacy and safety of gemcitabine-oxaliplatin combined with huachansu in patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(33):5210-5216. crossref(new window)

80.
Raymond C. TCM Materia Medica (Chinese Herbal Database). http://www.tcmbasics.com/materiamedica.htm. Accessed 12 September 2011.

81.
Rootdown LLC. Rootdown.us - grow together (v2.187.423.57). http://www.rootdown.us/. Accessed 8 August 2009.

82.
Rosenfeldt FL, Haas SJ, Krum H, Hadj A, Ng K, Leong JY, Watts GF. Coenzyme Q10 in the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis of the clinical trials. J Hum Hypertens. 2007;21(4):297-306.

83.
Roxane Laboratories Inc. Cyclophosphamide tablets USP [product information]. Columbus, OH; 2007.

84.
Sagar SM, Wong RK. Chinese medicine and biomodulation in cancer patients - Part one. Curr Oncol. 2008;15(1):42-48. crossref(new window)

85.
Seeram NP, Adams LS, Hardy ML, Heber D. Total cranberry extract versus its phytochemical constituents: antiproliferative and synergistic effects against human tumor cell lines. J Agric Food Chem. 2004;52(9):2512-2517. crossref(new window)

86.
Shim M. Connecting internet use with gaps in cancer knowledge. Health Commun. 2008;23(5):448-461. crossref(new window)

87.
Shinozawa S, Gomita Y, Araki Y. Tissue concentration of doxorubicin (adriamycin) in mouse pretreated with alpha-tocopherol or coenzyme Q10. Acta Med Okayama. 1991;45(3):195-199.

88.
Shinozawa S, Kawasaki H, Gomita Y. Effect of biological membrane stabilizing drugs (coenzyme Q10, dextran sulfate and reduced glutathione) on adriamycin (doxorubicin)-induced toxicity and microsomal lipid peroxidation in mice. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1996;23(1):93-98.

89.
Sparreboom A, Cox MC, Acharya MR, Figg WD. Herbal remedies in the United States: potential adverse interactions with anticancer agents. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:2489-2503. crossref(new window)

90.
Stothers L. A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women. Can J Urol. 2002;9(3):1558-1562.

91.
Sun J, Hai Liu R. Cranberry phytochemical extracts induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2006;241(1):124-134. crossref(new window)

92.
Suvarna R, Pirmohamed M, Henderson L. Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice. BMJ. 2003;327(7429):1454. crossref(new window)

93.
Takai N, Ueda T, Nishida M, Nasu K, Narahara H. Bufalin induces growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human endometrial and ovarian cancer cells. Int J Mol Med. 2008;21(5):637-643.

94.
Tan KY, Liu CB, Chen AH, Ding YJ, Jin HY, Seow-Choen F. The role of traditional Chinese medicine in colorectal cancer treatment. Tech Coloproctol. 2008;12(1):1-6; discussion 6. crossref(new window)

95.
Tasaki K, Maskarinec G, Shumay DM, Tatsumura Y, Kakai H. Communication between physicians and cancer patients about complementary and alternative medicine: exploring patients' perspectives. Psychooncol. 2002;11(3):212-220. crossref(new window)

96.
Tascilar M, de Jong FA, Verweij J, Mathijssen RHJ. Complementary and alternative medicine during cancer treatment: beyond innocence. Oncologist. 2006;11:732-741. crossref(new window)

97.
Thomson Healthcare. $Micromedex^{(R)}$ Healthcare Series [internet database]. http://www.micromedex.com. Accessed 3 February 2011.

98.
Trubiani O, Recchioni R, Moroni F, Pizzicannella J, Caputi S, Di Primio R. Melatonin provokes cell death in human B-lymphoma cells by mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway activation. J Pineal Res. 2005;39(4):425-431. crossref(new window)

99.
Tsinghua Tongfang Knowledge Network Technology Co. Ltd. China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). http://en.cnki.com.cn/. Accessed 12 September 2011.