JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Papaya: A gifted nutraceutical plant - a critical review of recent human health research
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : TANG [HUMANITAS MEDICINE]
  • Volume 4, Issue 1,  2014, pp.2.1-2.17
  • Publisher : Association of Humanitas Medicine
  • DOI : 10.5667/tang.2013.0028
 Title & Authors
Papaya: A gifted nutraceutical plant - a critical review of recent human health research
Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jegajeevanram, Kaliyaperumal; Xavier, Jerome; Vijayalakshmi, Jayaraman;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The plant kingdom is considered to be a repository of modern medicine, attributable to their rich source of bio-active molecules and secondary metabolites. It is indeed the Nutraceuticals that enhance immunity and ensure a healthier life because of their prophylactic and therapeutic values. Over centuries, papaya [Caricaceae; (Carica papaya Linn.)] is a renowned nutritious and medicinal plant. Each part of the papaya like root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit, seed, rinds, and latex has its own nutraceutical properties. It serves as food, cooking aid, and Ethnomedicine to prevent and treat wide-range of diseases and disorders. It has also been traditionally used as appetite enhancer, meat tenderizer, purgative, medicinal acne, abortifacient and vermifuge. Over decades, a series of scientific attempts were made to authenticate the nutraceutical properties of papaya. These studies validated that the papaya has antiplasmodial, antitrichochramal, antitrichomonal, antidengue, and anti-cancer activities. They have also exhibited that papaya possesses antiseptic, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and contraceptive features, and it helps in the management of sickle-cell anaemia, HIV, heart diseases and digestional disorders too. Nevertheless, the responsible bio-active molecules and their mode of actions remain indistinct and imprecise, and this calls for further pharmacological and clinical research on them. Conclusively, papaya is one of the naturally gifted plants; though its nutraceutical properties as a food or as a quasi-drug are poorly understood or undervalued by people. Accordingly, this scrutiny, demand for instigation of public health awareness campaigns to promote papaya consumption, so that the society shall acquire optimal benefits of papaya and in turn prevent and alleviate various diseases and illness.
 Keywords
Carica papaya;traditional system of medicine;nutraceutical;phytotherapy;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Adaikan PG, Adebiyi A. Mechanisms of the oxytocic activity of Papaya proteinases. Pharm Biol. 2004;42:646-655.

2.
Adebiyi A, Adaikan PG, Prasad RN. Papaya (Carica papaya) consumption is unsafe in pregnancy: fact or fable? Scientific evaluation of a common belief in some parts of Asia using a rat model.Br J Nutr. 2002;88:199-203. crossref(new window)

3.
Adebiyi A, Adaikan PG. Modulation of jejunal contractions by extract of Carica papaya L. seeds. Phytother Res. 2005;19:628-632. crossref(new window)

4.
Adjanohoun JE, Aboubakar N, Dramane K, Ebot ME, Ekpere JA, Enoworock EG, Focho D, Gbile ZO, Kamanyi A, Kamsu K J, Keita A, Mbenkum T, Mbi CN, Mbiele AC, Mbome JC, Muberu NK, Nancy WL, Kongmeneck B, Satabie B, Sowora A, Tamze V, Wirmum CK. Traditional Medicine and Pharmacopoeia: Contribution to ethno botanical and floristic studies in Cameroon. (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Organization of African Unity), 1996.

5.
Afzan A, Abdullah NR, Halim SZ, Rashid BA, Semail RH, Abdullah N, Jantan I, Muhammad H, Ismail Z. Repeated dose 28-days oral toxicity study of Carica papaya L. leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Molecules. 2012;17:4326-4342. crossref(new window)

6.
Ahmad N, Fazal H, Ayaz M, Abbasi BH, Mohammad I, Fazal L. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011;1:330-333.

7.
Amazu LU, Ebong OO, Azikiwe CCA, Unekwe PC, Siminialayi MI, Nwosu PJC, Ezeani MC, Obidiya OS, Ajugwo AO. Effects of the methanolic seeds extract of Carica Papaya on plasmodium Berghei infected mice. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 2009;2:1-6.

8.
Amenta R, Camarda L, Di Stefano V, Lentini F, Venza F. Traditional medicine as a source of new therapeutic agents against psoriasis. Fitoterapia. 2000;71:S13-S20. crossref(new window)

9.
Anuar NS, Zahari SS, Taib IA, Rahman MT. Effect of green and ripe Carica papaya epicarp extracts on wound healing and during pregnancy. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:2384-2389. crossref(new window)

10.
Aravind G, Bhowmik D, Duraivel S, Harish G. Traditional and Medicinal Uses of Carica papaya. J Med Plants Stud. 2013;1:7-15.

11.
Aruoma OI, Hayashi Y, Marotta F, Mantello P, Rachmilewitz E, Montagnier L. Applications and bioefficacy of the functional food supplement fermented papaya preparation. Toxicology. 2010;278:6-16. crossref(new window)

12.
Ayoola PB, Adeyeye A. Phytochemical And Nutrient Evaluation of Carica Papaya (Pawpaw) Leaves. Intl J Res Rev Appl Sci. 2010;5:325-328.

13.
Azarkan M, El Moussaoui A, van Wuytswinkel D, Dehon G, Looze Y. Fractionation and purification of the enzymes stored in the latex of Carica papaya. J Chromatogr B AnalytTechnol Biomed Life Sci. 2003;790:229-238. crossref(new window)

14.
Basu A, Haldar S. Dietary isothiocyanate mediated apoptosis of human cancer cells is associated with Bcl-xL phosphorylation. Int J Oncol. 2008;33:657-663.

15.
Bhat GP, Surolia N. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of three plants used in the traditional medicine of India. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:304-308.

16.
Bonsu AK. Power of Garlic. (Buea, Cameroon: Atbo Radiant Health), p.72, 2009.

17.
Bonuccelli U. Papaya to counteract oxidative stress, Parkinson's HIV. 2012. Available at: http://www.quotidianosanita.it/scienza-e-farmaci/articolo.php?articolo_id=7584 (accessed on 27th March 2013).

18.
Brower V. Nutraceuticals: poised for a healthy slice of the healthcare market?. Nat Biotechnol. 1998;16:728-731. crossref(new window)

19.
Buhner H. The Secret Teachings of Plants: The Intelligence of the Heart in the Direct Perception of Nature. 2000. Retrieved 20th October 2012. Available at: http://www.scribd.com/doc/35824233/The-Secret-Teachings-of-Plants (accessed on 29th January 2014).

20.
Calzada F, Yépez-Mulia L, Tapia-Contreras A. Effect of Mexican medicinal plant used to treat trichomoniasis on Trichomonasvaginalistrophozoites. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;113:248-251. crossref(new window)

21.
Cherian T. Effect of papaya latex extract on gravid and nongravid rat uterine preparations in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;70:205-212. crossref(new window)

22.
Ching LS, Mohamed S. Alpha-tocopherol content in 62 edible tropical plants. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:3101-3105. crossref(new window)

23.
Chopra RN, Chopra IC, Handa KL, Kapur LD. Chopra's Indigenous Drugs of India. (Calcutta, India: U.N. Dhur and Sons Private Limited), p. 309, 1958.

24.
Cornell University. Medicinal Plants for Livestock-Carica papaya. 2009. Available at: http://www.ansci.cornell.edu/plants/medicinal/papaya.html (acessed on 10th March 2013).

25.
da Silva CR, Oliveira MB, Motta ES, de Almeida GS, Varanda LL, de Pádula M, Leitao AC, Caldeira-de-Arauio A. Genotoxic and Cytotoxic Safety Evaluation of Papain (Carica papaya L.) Using In Vitro Assays. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:197898.

26.
Das RP. Effect of papaya seed on the genital organs and fertility of male rats. Ind J Exp Biol. 1980;18:408-409.

27.
Dass A. Papaya. National Library Board Singapore. 2010. Available at: http://infopedia.nl.sg/articles/SIP_170_2005-01-11.html (accessed on 09th May 2013).

28.
Dharma AP. Tanamanobattradisional Indonesia. (Indonesia, Jakarta: BalaiPustaka), p.291, 1985.

29.
Diegelmann RF, Evans MC. Wound healing: an overview of acute, fibrotic and delayed healing. Front Biosci. 2004;9:283-289. crossref(new window)

30.
Drenth J, Jansonius JN, Koekoek R, Swen HM, Wolthers BG. Structure of papain. Nature. 1968;218:929-932. crossref(new window)

31.
Duke JA. Carica papaya L. Handbook of Energy Crops. Available at: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Carica_papaya.html (accessed on 25th February 2013).

32.
EDI. EDIS document FE913, a publication of the Food and Resource Economics Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. United States of America. Available at: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu (accessed on 22nd March 2013).

33.
Forstner GG. Release of intestinal surface-membrane glycoproteins associated with enzyme activity by brief digestion with papain. Biochem J. 1971;121:781-789.

34.
Ghoti H, Fibach E, Dana M, Abu Shaban M, Jeadi H, Braester A, Matas Z, Rachmilewitz E. Oxidative stress contributes to hemolysis in patients with hereditary spherocytosis and can be ameliorated by fermented papaya preparation. Ann Hematol. 2011;90:509-513. crossref(new window)

35.
Goyal S, Manivannan B, Ansari AS, Jain SC, Lohiya NK. Safety evaluation of long term oral treatment of methanol subfraction of the seeds of Carica papaya as a male contraceptive in albino rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127:286-291. crossref(new window)

36.
Gyuatt HL, Evans D. Economic considerations for helminth control. Parasitol Today. 1992;8:397-402. crossref(new window)

37.
Halim SZ, Abdullah NR, Afzan A, Abdul Rashid BA, Jantan I, Ismail Z. Acute toxicity study of Carica papaya leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats. J Med Plants Res. 2011;5:1867-1872.

38.
Hewitt H, Whittle S, Lopez S, Bailey E, Weaver S. Topical use of papaya in chronic skin ulcer therapy in Jamaica. West Indian Med J. 2000;49:32-33.

39.
Hornick CA, Sanders LI, Lin YC. Effect of Carpaine, a papaya alkaloid, on the circulatory function in the rat. Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol. 1978;22:277-289.

40.
Huet J, Looze Y, Bartik K, Raussens V, Wintjens R, Boussard P. Structural Characterization of the papaya cysteine protinases at low pH. BiochemBiophys Res Commun. 2006;341:620-626. crossref(new window)

41.
Imaga NA, Gbenle GO, Okochi VI, Adenekan S, Duro- Emmanuel T, Oyeniyi B, Dokai PN, Oyenuga M, Otumara A, Ekeh FC. Phytochemical and antioxidant nutrient constituents of Carica papaya and Parquetinanigrescens extracts. Sci Res Essays. 2010;5:2201-2205.

42.
Jacquet A, Kleinschmidt T, Schnek AG, Looze Y, Braunitzer G. The thiol proteinases from the latex of Carica papaya L. III.The primary structure of chymopapain. BiolChem Hoppe Seyler. 1989;370:425-434. crossref(new window)

43.
Janick J, Paull RE. The Encyclopedia of fruit and nuts. (Wallingford, UK: CABI), pp.237-247, 2008.

44.
Kafaru E. Immense Help from Nature's Workshop. (Lagos, Nigerian: Elikaf Health Services Limited), pp. 207-209, 1994.

45.
Karunamoorthi K, Bekele M. Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: A 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, KersaWoreda, Ethiopia. J Infect Public Health. 2009;2:171-176. crossref(new window)

46.
Karunamoorthi K, Deboch B, Tafere Y. Knowledge and practice concerning malaria, insecticide-treated net (ITN) utilization and antimalarial treatment among pregnant women attending specialist antenatal clinics. J Public Health. 2010;8:559-566.

47.
Karunamoorthi K, Girmay A, Hayleeyesus SF. Mosquito Repellent Activity of Essential oil of Ethiopian Ethnomedicinal Plant against Afro-tropical Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis. J King Saud University - Sci. 2014. [Epub ahead of print]

48.
Karunamoorthi K, Ilango K, Endale A. Ethnobotanical survey of knowledge and usage custom of traditional insect/mosquito repellent plants among the Ethiopian Oromo ethnic group. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125:224-229. crossref(new window)

49.
Karunamoorthi K, Ilango K, Murugan K. Laboratory evaluation of traditionally used plant-based insect repellent against the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 2010;106:1217-1223. crossref(new window)

50.
Karunamoorthi K, Jegajeevanram K, Vijayalakshmi J, Embialle M. Traditional Medicinal Plants: A Source of Phytotherapeutic Modality in the Resource-Constrained Health Care Settings. JEBCAM. 2013;18:67-74.

51.
Karunamoorthi K, Jegajeevanram K, xavier J, Vijayalakshmi J, Melita L. Tamil Traditional Medicinal System - Siddha: An Indigenous Health Practice in the International Perspectives. TANG. 2012;2:e12.

52.
Karunamoorthi K, Mohammed M, Wassie F. Knowledge and Practices of Farmers With Reference to Pesticide Management: Implications on Human Health. Arch Environ Occup Health. 2012;67:109-116. crossref(new window)

53.
Karunamoorthi K, Ramanujam S, Rathinasamy R. Evaluation of leaf extracts of Vitexnegundo L. (Family: Verbenaceae) against larvae of Culextritaeniorhynchus (Insecta; Diptera; Culicidae) and repellent activity on adult vector mosquitoes. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:545-550. crossref(new window)

54.
Karunamoorthi K, Sabesan S, Jegajeevanram K, Vijayalakshmi J. Role of Traditional Anti-malarial Plants in the Battle against Global Malaria Burden. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2013;13:521-544. crossref(new window)

55.
Karunamoorthi K, Sabesan S. Insecticide Resistance in Insect Vectors of Disease with Special Reference to Mosquitoes: A Potential Threat to Global Public Health. Health Scope. 2012;2:4-18.

56.
Karunamoorthi K, Sabesan S. Laboratory evaluation of Dimethyl phthalate treated wristbands against three predominant mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of disease. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2010;14:443-448.

57.
Karunamoorthi K, Sabesan S. Relative efficacy of repellents treated wristbands against three major mosquitoes (Insecta; Diptera: Culicidae) vectors of disease, under laboratory conditions. Int Health. 2009;1:173-177. crossref(new window)

58.
Karunamoorthi K, Tsehaye E. Ethnomedicinal Knowledge, Belief and Self-reported Practice of local inhabitants on Traditional Antimalarial Plants and Phytotherapy. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012;141:143-150. crossref(new window)

59.
Karunamoorthi K. Global Malaria Burden: Socialomics Implications. J Socialomics. 2012;1:e108.

60.
Karunamoorthi K. Impact of Global Warming on Vector-borne Diseases: Implications for Integrated Vector Management. J Socialomics. 2012;1:e113.

61.
Karunamoorthi K. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: A Major Source of Green Pesticides/Risk-reduced Pesticides. J Med Aromat Plants. 2012d;1:e137.

62.
Karunamoorthi K. Neem Oil: biological activities and usage. "Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants" (RPMP)" Vol. 33: Fixed Oils and Fats of Pharmaceutical Importance. J.N. Govil eds. (Texas, United States of America: Studium Press LLC.), 2012a.

63.
Karunamoorthi K. Plant-Based Insect Repellents: Is That a Sustainable Option to Curb the Malaria Burden in Africa?. J Med Aromt Plants. 2012;1:e106.

64.
Karunamoorthi K. Vector Control: A Cornerstone in the Malaria Elimination Campaign. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1608-1616. crossref(new window)

65.
Karunamoorthi, K. Malaria Vaccine: A Future Hope to Curtail the Global Malaria Burden. Intl J Preventive Med. North America, DEC 2013. Available at: http://ijpm.mui.ac.ir/index.php/ijpm/article/view/1278. (accessed on 20th January 2014).

66.
Kazembe T, Makusha C. Evaluation of Mosquito Repellencies of Capsicum frutescens, Carica papaya and Cyanodondactylon Extracts and Extract Mixtures. Bull Environ Pharmacol Life Sci. 2012;1:34-40

67.
Kebebew Z, Shibeshi W. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolicCarica papaya L. (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;150:665-671. crossref(new window)

68.
Kermanshahi R, McCarryBE, Rosenfeld J, Summers PS, Weretilnyk EA, Sorger GJ. Benzyl isothiocyanate is the chief or sole anthelmintic in papaya seed extracts. Phytochemistry. 2001;57:427-435. crossref(new window)

69.
Kovendan K, Murugan K, Naresh Kumar A, Vincent S, Hwang JS. Bioefficacy of larvicdial and pupicidal properties of Carica papaya (Caricaceae) leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, spinosad, against chikungunya vector, Aedesaegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res. 2011;110:669-678.

70.
Krishnakumari MK, Majumder SK. Studies on the antihelmintic activities of seeds of Carica papaya Linn. Ann Biochem Exp Med. 1960;2:551-556.

71.
Lal J, Chandra S, Raviprakash V, Sabir M. In vitro anthelmintic action of some indigenous medicinal plants on Ascaridiagalli worms. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1976;20:64-68.

72.
Last W. Cancer remedies. 2008. Available at: http://www. health-science-spirit.com/cancer6-remedies.html (accessed on 06th February 2014).

73.
Lohiya NK, Goyal RB, Jayaprakash D, Ansari AS, Sharma S. Antifertility effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in male rats. Planta Medica. 1994;60:400-404. crossref(new window)

74.
Lohiya NK, Goyal RB. Antifertility investigation on the crude chloroform extract of Carica papaya Linn.seeds in male albino rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 1992;30:1051-1055.

75.
Lohiya NK, Pathak N, Mishra PK, Manivannan B. Reversible contraception with chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds in male rabbits. ReprodToxicol. 1999;13:59-66.

76.
Low C, Maretzki AN. Papaya. Honolulu (HI): University of Hawaii. 3 p. (Commodity Fact Sheets; CFS-PA-1A). 1982. Available at: http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10125/9037/CFS-PA-1A.pdf?sequence=1 (accessed on 07th February 2014).

77.
Mantok C. Multiple Usage of Green Papaya in Healing at Tao Garden.Tao Garden Health spa & Resort. Thailand. 2005. Available at: www.tao-garden.com (accessed on 20th March 2013).

78.
Marotta F, Naito Y, Padrini F, Xuewei X, Jain S, Soresi V, Zhou L, Catanzaro R, Zhong K, Polimeni A, Chui DH. Redox balance signalling in occupational stress: modification by nutraceutical intervention. J BiolRegulHomeost Agents. 2011;25:221-229.

79.
Mehdipour S, Yasa N, Dehghan G, Khorasani R, Mohammadirad A, Rahimi R, Abdollahi M. Antioxidant potentials of Iranian Carica papaya juice in vitro and in vivo are comparable to alpha-tocopherol. Phytother Res. 2006;20:591-594. crossref(new window)

80.
Melariri P, Campbell W, Etusim P, Smith P. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves. J Parasitol Res. 2011;2011:104954.

81.
Melissa P, Andrew W, Felix O, Helen A, Nadia PW, Paula FT. Effects of subchronic exposure to transgenic papayas (Carica papaya L.) on liver and kidney enzymes and lipid parameters in rats. J Sci Food Agricul. 2008;88:2638-2647. crossref(new window)

82.
Miean KH, Mohamed S. Flavonoid (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, and apigenin) content of edible tropical plants. J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:3106-3112. crossref(new window)

83.
Mundodi V, Kucknoor AS, Chang TH, Alderete JF. A novel surface protein of Trichomonasvaginalis is regulated independently by low iron and contact with vaginal epithelial cells. BMC Microbiol. 2009;6:6.

84.
Mursof EP, He S. A potential role of papaya latex as an anthelmintic against patent Ascaridiagalli infection in chicken. HemeraZoa. 1991;74:11-20.

85.
Muss C, Mosgoeller W, Endler T. Papaya preparation (Caricol(R) ) in digestive disorders. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2013;34:38-46.

86.
Nguyen TT, Shaw PN, Parat MO, Hewavitharana AK. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013;57:153-164. crossref(new window)

87.
Oduola T, Adeniyi FAA, Ogunyemi EO, Bello IS, Idowu TO. Antisickling agent in an extract of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya): is it real?. Afr J Biotechnol. 2006;5:1947-1949.

88.
OECD (Environment Directorate Joint Meeting of the Chemicals Committee and the Working Party on Chemicals, Pesticides and Biotechnology). . 2005. Consensus Document on the Biology of Papaya (Carica papaya) Series on Harmonisation of Regulatory Oversight in Biotechnology No. 33Available at: http://www.oecd.org/science/biotrack/46815818.pdf (acces sed on 07th February 2014).

89.
Okeniyi JA, Ogunlesi TA, Oyelami OA, Adeyemi LA. Effectiveness of dried Carica papaya seeds against human intestinal parasitosis: a pilot study. J Med Food. 2007;10:194-196. crossref(new window)

90.
Oladimeji OH, Ani L, Nyong E. Potential larvicides in Nigerian herbal recipes. IJPSR. 2012;3:3783-3787.

91.
Oloyede OI. Chemical profile of unripe pulp of Carica papaya. Paki J Nutr. 2005;4:379-381. crossref(new window)

92.
Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. Carica papaya. Agroforestry Database 4.0. 2009. Available at: http://www.worldagroforestry.org/treedb2/AFTPDFS/Carica_papaya.pdf (accessed on 09th May 2013).

93.
Otsuki N, Dang NH, Kumagai E, Kondo A, Iwata S, Morimoto C. Aqueous extract of Carica papaya leaves exhibits anti-tumor activity and immunomodulatory effects. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010;127:760-767. crossref(new window)

94.
Perry LM. Medical plants of East and Southeast Asia.(London, US: The MIT Press,), p 620. 1980.

95.
Puri CP, Vanlook PFA. Current concepts in fertility regulation and reproduction. (New Delhi, India: Wiley Eastern Limited), pp. 177-192, 1994.

96.
Ranasinghe P, Ranasinghe P, Abeysekera WP, Premakumara GA, Perera YS, Gurugama P, Gunatilake SB. In vitro erythrocyte membrane stabilization properties of Carica papaya L. leaf extracts. Pharmacognosy Res. 2012;4:196-202. crossref(new window)

97.
Ratanyake S, Rupprecht JK, Potter WM, McLanghlin JL. Evaluation of various parts of the pawpaw tree, Asiminatriloba (Annonaceae), as commercial source of the pesticidalannonaceousacetogenins. J Econ Entomol. 1992;85:2353-2356. crossref(new window)

98.
Rawani A, Ghosh A, Laskar S, Chandra G. Aliphatic Amide from Seeds of Carica papaya as Mosquito Larvicide, Pupicide, Adulticide, Repellent and Smoke Toxicant. J Mosq Res. 2012;2:8-18.

99.
Richharia RH. Plant Breeding and Genetics in India. (Ahmedabad, India: Scientific Book Company), 1957.