Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of polyphenols of Cocos nucifera husk fibreon selected indices of cardiovascular diseases in mice
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : TANG [HUMANITAS MEDICINE]
  • Volume 6, Issue 2,  2016, pp.12.1-12.7
  • Publisher : Association of Humanitas Medicine
  • DOI : 10.5667/tang.2016.0003
 Title & Authors
Effects of polyphenols of Cocos nucifera husk fibreon selected indices of cardiovascular diseases in mice
Adebayo, Joseph Oluwatope; Adewumi, Olumuyiwa Sunday; Baruwa, Simbiat Titilayo; Balogun, Elizabeth Abidemi; Malomo, Sylvia Orume; Olatunji, Lawrence Aderemi; Soladoye, Ayodele Olufemi;
  PDF(new window)
Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) oil is indigenously used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, coconut husk fibre (which is rich in polyphenols) has not been screened for this property. Based on the ethnomedicinal use of polyphenols in treating cardiovascular diseases, this study was carried out to evaluate the effects of polyphenols of C. nucifera husk fibre on selected cardiovascular disease indices in mice. Fifty adult male Swiss albino mice were assigned randomly into five groups (A-E). Mice in groups B, C, D and E were administered 31.25, 62.5, 125, and 250 mg/kg body weight polyphenols of ethyl acetate extract of C. nucifera husk fibre respectively while the control group (A) mice received 5% DMSO for seven days. The mice were sacrificed twenty four hours after the last administration of polyphenols. Heart and plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and plasma lipid profile were determined. Results revealed significant reduction (*p< 0.05) in plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol with no significant change (*p> 0.05) in HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL levels in the plasma at all doses of polyphenols administered compared to controls. There was significant reduction (*p< 0.05) in the activities of heart AST and LDH while plasma ALT, AST, and ALP activities were not significantly altered (*p> 0.05) at all doses of polyphenols administered compared to controls. These results suggest that the polyphenols of C. nucifera husk fibre possess cardio-protective properties and also indicate their possible use in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
coconut;polyphenols;cardiovascular diseases;husk fibre;
 Cited by
Abd El-Mageed NM. Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats. Asian J Clin Nutr. 2011;7:151-156.

Adebayo JO, Adesokan AA, Olatunji LA, Buoro DO, Soladoye AO. Effect of ethanolic extract of Bougainvillea spectabilis leaves on haematological and serum lipid variables in rats. Biokemistri. 2005;17:45-50. crossref(new window)

Adebayo JO, Balogun EA, Malomo SO, Soladoye AO, Olatunji LA, Kolawole OM, Oguntoye OS, Babatunde AS, Akinola OB, Aguiar ACC, Andrade IM, Souza NB, Krettli AU. Antimalarial Activity of Cocosnucifera Husk Fibre: Further Studies. Evid-Based Compl Alt. 2013;2013:1-9. crossref(new window)

Adebayo JO, Yakubu MT, Egwin CE, Owoyele BV, Enaibe BU. Effect of ethanolic extract of Khayasenegalensis on some biochemical parameters of rat kidney. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:69-72. crossref(new window)

Agner AR, Maciel MA, Pinto AC, Colus IM. Antigenotoxicity of trans-dehydrocrotonin, a cleorodanediterpene from Croton cajucara, Planta Med. 2001;67:815-819. crossref(new window)

Akanji MA, Olagoke OA, Oloyede OB. Effect of chronic consumption of metabisulphite on the integrity of rat kidney cellular system. Toxicology. 1993;8:173-179. crossref(new window)

Allain CC, Poon L, Chan SG, Richmond W, Fu P. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem. 1974;20:470.

Alviano DS, Rodrigues KF, Leitão SG, Rodrigues ML, Matheus ML, Fernández PD, Antoniolli AR, Alviano CS. Antinociceptive and free radical scavenging activities of Cocos nucifera L. (Palmae) husk aqueous extract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;92:269-273. crossref(new window)

Anthea M, Hopkins J, McLaughlin CW, Johnson S, Warner MQ, LaHart D, Wright JD. Human Biology and Health. 1st ed. (New Jersey, U.S.A: Englewood Cliffs), 1993.

Anurag P, Rajamohan T. Cardioprotective effect of tender coconut water in experimental myocardial infarction. Plant Food Hum Nutr. 2003;58:1-12. crossref(new window)

Bachorik PS, Walker R, Brownell KD, Stunkard AJ, Kwiterovich PO. Determination of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol in stored human plasma. J Lipid Res. 1980;21:608-616.

Bankar GR, Nayak PG, Bansal P, Paul P, Pai KS, Singla RK, Bhat VG. Vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effect of Cocos nucifera Linn. endocarp on isolated rat thoracic aorta and DOCA salt-induced hypertensive rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011;134:50-54. crossref(new window)

Barthelman M, Bair III WB, Stickland KK, Chen W, Timmermann BN, Valcic S, Dong Z, Bowden GT. (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibitio of ultraviolet B-induced AP-1 activity. Carcinogenesis. 1998;19:2001-2004. crossref(new window)

Baum J, Teng H, Erdman JW Jr, Weigel RM, Klein BP, Persky VW, Freels S, Surya P, Bakhit RM, Ramos E, Shay NF, Potter SM. Long-term intake of soy protein improves blood lipid profiles and increases mononuclear cell low-density-lipoprotein receptor messenger RNA in hypercholesterolemic, postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:545-551. crossref(new window)

Bighetti EJ, Hiruma-Lima CA, Gracioso JS, Brito AR. Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects in rodents of the essential oil of Croton cajucaraBenth. J Pharmacy Pharmacol. 1999;51:1447-1453. crossref(new window)

Boers M, Nurmohamed MT, Doelman CJ, Lard LR, Verhoeven AC, Voskuyl AE, Huizinga TW, van de Stadt RJ, Dijkmans BA, van der Linden S. Influence of glucocorticoids and disease activity on total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheumatic Dis. 2003;62:842-845. crossref(new window)

Boham BA, Kocipai AC. Flavonoids and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawaiian vacciniumvaticulatum and V. calycinium. Pacific Sci. 1994;48:458-463.

Cedillo-Rivera R, Chavez B, Gonzalez-Robles A, Tapia A, Yepez-Mulia L. In vitro effect of nitazoxanide against Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and Trichomonas vaginalis trophozoites. J Eukaryot Microbiol 2002;49:201-208. crossref(new window)

Chen M, Griffith P, Lucia HL, Hsiung GD. Efficacy of S26308 against guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988;32:678-683. crossref(new window)

DebMandal M, Mandal S. Coconut (CocosnuciferaL.: Arecaceae): In health promotion and disease prevention. Asian Pacific J Trop Med. 2011;4:241-247. crossref(new window)

Demosthenes B, Panagiotakos B, Toutouzas PK. Importance of LDL/HDL ratio as a redicator for coronary heart disease event in patients with heterozygous familiar hypercholesterolemia: a 15-year follow-up (1987-2002). Curr Med Res Opin. 2003;19:89-94.

Esquenazi D, Wigg MD, Miranda MMFS, Rodrigues HM, Tostes, JBF, Rozental S, Da Silva AJR, Alviano CS. Antimicrobial and antiviral activities of polyphenolics from Cocosnucifera Linn. (Palmae) husk fiber extract. Res Microbiol. 2002;153:647-652. crossref(new window)

Friedwald WT, Levy RI, Freidrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18:449-502.

Fujiki H, Suganuna M, Oabe S, Sueoka N, Kamori A, Sueoka E, Kozu T, Tada Y, Suga K, Imai K, Nakachi K. Cancer inhibition by green tea. Mutat Res. 1998;402:307-310. crossref(new window)

Gandhi M, Aggarwal M, Puri S, Singla SK. Prophylactic effect of coconut water (Cocos nucifera L.) on ethylene glycol induced nephrocalcinosis in male wistar rat. Int Braz J Urol 2013;39:108-117. crossref(new window)

Geetha T, Garg A, Chopra T, Kaur IP. Delineation of antimutagenic activity of catechin, epicatechin and green tea extract. Mutat Res. 2004;556:65-74. crossref(new window)

Gornall A, Bardawill CT, David MM. Determination of serum protein by means of biuret reaction. J Biol Chem. 1949;177:751-766.

Han X, Shen T, Lou H. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance. Review article. Int J Mol Sci. 2007;8:950-988. crossref(new window)

Harbourne JB. Phytochemical methods. (London, U.K: Chapman and Hall), pp. 49-188, 1973.

Jimoh FO, Odutuga AA. Changes in the activities of some diagnostic enzymes in some rat tissues following the consumption of thermally oxidized groundnut oil. Nig J Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;16:173-176.

Jose M, Cyriac MB, Pai V, Varghese I, Shantaram M. Antimicrobial properties of Cocos nucifera (coconut) husk: An extrapolation to oral health. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2014;5:359-364. crossref(new window)

Joyex M, Lobstein A, Anton R, Mortier F. Comparative antilipoperoxidant, antinecrotic and scavenging properties of torpenes and biflavones from Ginko and some flavonoids. Planta Med. 1995;61:126-129. crossref(new window)

Khanna AK, Rizvi F, Chander R. Lipid lowering activity of Phyllanthusniruri in hyperlipemic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;82:19-22. crossref(new window)

Khazaál MS. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) as a parameter in predicting cardiovascular risk in males compared to the conventional dyslipidemic indices (cholesterol ratios). Karbala J Med. 2013;6:1595-1600.

Kumar V, Sahu NP, Pal AK, Kumar S, Sinha AK, Ranjan J, Baruah K. Modulation of key enzymes of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and TCA cycle of the tropical freshwater fish Labeorohita fed gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch diet. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2010;36:491-499. crossref(new window)

Lamarche B, Moorjani S, Lupien PJ, Cantin B, Bernard PM, Dagenais GR, Després JP. Apolipoprotein A-I and B levels and the risk of ischemic heart disease during a five year follow-up of men in the Quebec Cardiovascular Study. Circulation. 1996;94:273-278. crossref(new window)

Loki AL, Rajamohan T. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of tender coconut water on carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in rats. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2003;40: 354-357.

Mendonca-Filho RR, Rodrigues IA, Alviano DS, Santos ALS, Soares RMA, Alviano CS, Lopes AH, Rosa Mdo S. Leishmanicidal activity of polyphenolics-rich extract from husk fiber of Cocosnucifera Linn. (Palmae). Res Microbiol. 2004;155:136-143. crossref(new window)

Moore KL, Dalley AF. Clinical Oriented Anatomy. 4th ed. (Philadelphia, U.S.A: Lippincott Williams and Williams), pp. 263-271, 1999.

Murray RK, Granner DK, Peter AM, Rodwell VW. Harper's Illustrated Biochemistry. 26th ed. (New York, U.S.A: The McGrawHill), pp. 46-47, 2007.

Nevin KG, Rajamohan T. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL-oxidation. Clin Biochem. 2004;37:830-835. crossref(new window)

Newton SM, Lau C, Gurcha SS, Besra GS, Wright CW. The evaluation of forty-three plant species for in vitro antimycobacterial activities; isolation of active constituents from Psoralea corylifolia and Sanguinaria Canadensis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79:57-67. crossref(new window)

Nurminen ML, Krpela R, Vapattalo H. Dietary factors in the pathogenesis and treatment of hypertension. Ann Med. 1998;30:143-150. crossref(new window)

Onyeike EN, Monanu MO, Okoye CN. Changes in the blood lipid profile of wistar albino rats fed rich cholesterol diet. Ann Biol Res. 2012;3:5186-5191.

Paschka AG, Butler R, Young CYF. Introduction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines by green tea component (-)-epigallactechin-3-gallate. Cancer Lett. 1998;130:1-7. crossref(new window)

Prabodh V, Prakash D, Sudhakar G, Reddy Y, Chowdary N, Desai S, Shekhara R. Importance of cardiac marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase and troponin I) in acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study from South India. Int J Med Sci Public Health 2012;1:118-120. crossref(new window)

Prozesky EA, Meyer JJ, Louw AI. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of ethonobotanically selected South African plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76:239-245. crossref(new window)

Rapaport E, Bilheimer DW, Chobanian AV, Hajjar DP, Hawkins CM, Hutchins GM, Kris-Etherton PM, Luepker RV, McIntosh HD, Pepine CJ, Pettinger WA, Schonfeld G, Tulcin DF, Criqui MH, Gordon DJ, Austin MA, Assmann G, Heiss G, Bush TL, Paoletti R, Rudel LL, Havel RJ, Tall A, Ginsberg HN, Bradley WA, Brewer Jr HB, Brunzell JD, LaRosa JC, Rossouw JE, Huttunen JK, Bachorik PS, Castelli WP, Hulley SB, Chait A, Denke MA, Wood PD, Gotto Jr AM, Schaefer EJ, Lewis B. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and coronary heart disease. JAMA. 1993;269:505-510. crossref(new window)

Reitman S, Frankel S. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxaloacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am J Clin Pathol. 1957;28:56-59. crossref(new window)

Sofowara A. Medicinal plants and Traditional medicine in Africa. (Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd), p. 289, 1993.

Steiner M, Li W. Aged garlic extract, a modulator of cardiovascular risk factors: a dose-finding study on the effects of AGE on platelet functions. J Nutr. 2001;131:9805-9845.

Tietz NW. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests. 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, USA: W.B. Saunders Co.), pp. 554-556, 1990.

Udoh FV, Lot TY. Effects of leaf and root extracts of Nauclea latifolia on the cardiovascular system. Fitoterapia. 1998;69: 141-146.

Vander A, Sherman J, Lucian D. Human physiology: The mechanism of body function. 7th ed. (New Jersey, USA: McGraw- Hill Co.), pp 275-299, 1998.

WHO. Cardiovascular Diseases. (Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization), 2012.

Wright PJ, Leathwood PD, Plummer DT. Enzymes in rat urine: alkaline phosphatase. Enzymologia. 1972;42:317-327.

Wroblewski F, La Due JS. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in blood. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1955;90:210-213. crossref(new window)

Yakubu MT, Akanji MA, Oladiji AT. Alterations in serum lipid profile of male rats by oral administration of aqueous extract of Fadogia argrestis stem. Asian J Androl. 2005;7:399-404. crossref(new window)

Yang CS, Wang X. Green Tea and cancer prevention. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:931-937. crossref(new window)

Yang GY, Liao J, Kim K, Yurkow FJ, Yang CS. Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in humam cancer cell lines by tea polyphenols. Carcinogenesis. 1998;19:611-616. crossref(new window)