Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Development of River Recreation Index Model by Synthesis of Water Quality Parameters
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Development of River Recreation Index Model by Synthesis of Water Quality Parameters
Seo, Il Won; Choi, Soo Yeon;
  PDF(new window)
In this research, a River Recreation Index Model (RRIM) was developed to provide sufficient information on the water quality of rivers to the public in order to secure safety of publics. River Recreation Index (RRI) is an integrated water quality information for recreation activities in rivers and expressed as the point from 0 to 100. The proposed RRIM consisted of two sub models: Fecal Coliform Model (FCM) and Water Quality Index Model (WQIM). FCM predicted Fecal Coliform Grade (FCG) using a logistic regression and WQIM synthesized water quality parameters of, DO, pH, turbidity and chlorophyll a into Water Quality Index (WQI). FCG and WQI were integrated into RRI by the integrating algorithm. The proposed model was applied to upstream of Gangjeong Weir in Nakdong River, and compared with Real Time Water Quality Index (RTWQI) which is the existing water quality information system for recreation use. The results show that calculated RRI reflected change of integrated water quality parameters well. Especially chlorophyll a showed Pearson correlation coefficient -0.85 with RRI. Also, RRIM produced more conservative index than RTWQI because RRI was calculated considering uncertainty of water quality criteria. Further, RRI showed especially low values when fecal coliform was predicted as low grade.
River recreation index model;Fecal coliform;Water quality index;Logistic regression;Fuzzy synthetic evaluation;Nakdong river;
 Cited by
Allison, P. D. (2012). Logistic regression using SAS: Theory and Application, SAS Publishing, Cary, N.C.

Brown, R. M., McClleland, N. I., Deininger, R. A. and Tozer, R. (1970). "A water quality index - Do we dare." Water and Sewage Works, Vol. 117, No. 10, pp. 339-343.

Chang, N. B., Chen, H. W. and Ning, S. K. (2001). "Identification of river water quality using the fuzzy synthetic evaluation approach." Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 63, No. 3, pp. 293-305. crossref(new window)

Choi, J. Y. (1996). Development of water quality index, Korea Environmental Technology Research Institute (in Korean).

Christensen, V. G., Jian, X. and Ziegler, A. C. (2000). Regression analysis and real-time water-quality monitoring to estimate constituent concentrations, loads, and yields in the Little Arkansas River, south-central Kansas, 1995-99, Water Resources Investigations Report No. 00-4126, United States Geological Survey, Lawrence, Kansas.

Clark, M. L. and Norris, J. R. (2000). Occurrence of fecal coliform bacteria in selected streams in Wyoming, 1990-99, USGS Water Resources Investigations Report No. 00-4198, United States Geological Survey, Cheyenne, Wyoming.

Crowther, J., Kay, D. and Wyer, M. D. (2001). "Relationships between water quality and environmental conditions in coastal recreational waters: The Fylde Coast, UK." Water Research, Vol. 35, No. 17, pp. 4029-4038. crossref(new window)

Dinius, S. H. (1987). "Design of an index of water quality." Water Resources Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 5, pp. 833-842. crossref(new window)

Dunnette, D. A. (1979). "A geographically variable water quality index used in Oregon." Journal (Water Pollution Control Federation), Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 53-61.

Eleria, A. and Vogel, R. M. (2005). "Predicting fecal coliform bacteria levels in the Charles River, Massachusetts, USA." Journal of American Water Resources Association, Vol. 41, No. 5, pp. 1195-1209. crossref(new window)

Ferguson, C. M., Coote, B. G., Ashbolt, N. J. and Stevenson, I. M. (1996). "Relationships between indicators, pathogens and water quality in an estuarine system." Water Resources, Vol. 30, No. 9, pp. 2045-2054.

Francy, D. S. and Darner, R. A. (2007). Nowcasting beach advisories at Ohio Lake Erie beaches, Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1427, United States Geological Survey.

Harkins, R. D. (1974). "An objective water quality index." Journal (Water Pollutants Control Federation), Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 588-591.

He, L. M. L. and He, Z. L. (2008). "Water quality prediction of marine recreational beaches receiving watershed baseflow and stormwater runoff in Southern California, USA." Water research, Vol. 42, No. 10-11, pp. 2563-2573. crossref(new window)

House, M. A. and Ellis, J. B. (1987). "The development of water quality Indices for operational management." Water Science and Technology, Vol. 19, No. 9, pp. 145-154.

Icaga, Y. (2007). "Fuzzy evaluation of water quality classification." Ecological Indicators, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 710-718. crossref(new window)

Jang, J. S. R., Sun, C. T. and Mizutani, E. (1997). Neuro-fuzzy and soft computing: A Computational Approach to Learning and Machine Intelligence, Prentice-Hall, Saddle River, N.J.

Joung, H. M., Miller, W. W., Mahannah, C. N. and Guitjens, J. C. (1979). "A generalized water quality index based on multivariate factor analysis." Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 95-100.

Kim, K. B., Kim, J. H., Jeong, Y., Jeong, Y. S. and Chung, S. J. (2012). "Prediction of coastal fecal indicator bacteria concentrations using multivariate data analysis." Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering A, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 440-447.

King, G. and Zeng, L. (2001). "Logistic regression in rare events data." Political Analysis, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 137-163. crossref(new window)

Lermontov, A., Yokoyama, L., Lermontov, M. and Machado, M. A. S. (2009). "River quality analysis using fuzzy water quality index: Ribeira do Iguape river watershed, Brazil." Ecological Indicators, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 1188-1197. crossref(new window)

Lu, R. S., Lo, S. L. and Hu, J. Y. (1999). "Analysis of reservoir water quality using fuzzy synthetic evaluation." Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 327-336. crossref(new window)

Maimone, M., Crockett, C. S. and Cesanek, W. E. (2007). "Philly River Cast: A Real-Time Bacteria Forecasting Model and Web Application for the Schuylkill River." Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 133, No. 6, pp. 542-549. crossref(new window)

Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTMA)(2009). Nakdong river master plan, Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (in Korean).

National Institute of Environmental Research (2013). Criteria of water quality and hydroecology, Available at: (Accessed: August 8, 2013).

National Institute of Environmental Research (2013). Forecast system of algae, Available at: (Accessed: August 11, 2013).

National Institute of Environmental Research (2013). Real time water quality index, Available at: (Accessed: November 15, 2013).

O'Connor, F. M. (1972). The application of multi-attribute scaling procedures to the development of indices of value, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Prati, L., Pavanello, R. and Pesarin, F. (1971). "Assessment of surface water quality by a single index of pollution." Water Research, Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 741-751. crossref(new window)

Seo, I. W. and Choi, S. Y. (2014). "Development of recreation index model and its applications to Nakdong River, Korea." Proceeding of 7th International Conference on Environmental Hydraulics, ISEH, Singapore, pp. 122-125.

Silvert, W. (2000). "Fuzzy indices of environmental conditions." Ecological Modelling, Vol. 130, No. 1, pp. 111-119. crossref(new window)

Sung, O. H. (2001). Applied logistic regression analysis, Tamjin (in Korean).

Thomann, R. V. and Mueller, J. A. (1987). Principle of surface water quality modeling and control, Harper Collins, New York, N.Y.

United Nations (1993). Readings in international environment statistics, United Nations, Washington, D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (1986). Ambient water quality criteria for bacteria, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency (2013). Water:State, Tribal & Territorial Standards, Available at: (Accessed: October, 10, 2013).

Walski, T. M. and Parker, F. L. (1974). "Consumers water quality index." Journal of Environmental Engineering Division, Vol. 100, No. 3, pp. 593-611.

World Health Organization (1998). Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed. Addendum to volume 2. Health criteria and other supporting information, World Health Organization, Geneva.

World Health Organization (2003). Guidelines for safe recreational water environments, Volume 1: Coastal and Fresh Waters, World Health Organization, Geneva.

Zadeh, L. A. (1965). "Fuzzy sets." Information and Control, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 338-353. crossref(new window)