Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Importance of particle shape on stress-strain behaviour of crushed stone-sand mixtures
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Geomechanics and Engineering
  • Volume 10, Issue 4,  2016, pp.455-470
  • Publisher : Techno-Press
  • DOI : 10.12989/gae.2016.10.4.455
 Title & Authors
Importance of particle shape on stress-strain behaviour of crushed stone-sand mixtures
Kumara, Janaka J.; Hayano, Kimitoshi;
In ballasted railway tracks, ballast fouling due to finer material intrusion has been identified as a challenging issue in track maintenance works. In this research, deformation characteristics of crushed stone-sand mixtures, simulating fresh and fouled ballasts were studied from laboratory and a 3-D discrete element method (DEM) triaxial compression tests. The DEM simulation was performed using a recently developed DEM approach, named, Yet Another Dynamic Engine (YADE). First, void ratio characteristics of crushed stone-sand mixtures were studied. Then, triaxial compression tests were conducted on specimens with 80 and 50% of relative densities simulating dense and loose states respectively. Initial DEM simulations were conducted using sphere particles. As stress-strain behaviour of crushed stone-sand mixtures evaluated by sphere particles were different from laboratory specimens, in next DEM simulations, the particles were modeled by a clump particle. The clump shape was selected using shape indexes of the actual particles evaluated by an image analysis. It was observed that the packing behaviour of laboratory crushed stone-sand mixtures were matched well with the DEM simulation with clump particles. The results also showed that the strength properties of crushed stone deteriorate when they are mixed by 30% or more of sand, specially under dense state. The results also showed that clump particles give closer stress-strain behaviour to laboratory specimens than sphere particles.
discrete element method;fouled ballast;railway track;stress-strain behaviour;triaxial test;
 Cited by
Al-Rousan, T., Masad, E., Tutumluer, E. and Pan, T. (2007), "Evaluation of image analysis techniques for quantifying aggregate shape characteristics", Construct. Build. Mater., 21(5), 978-990. crossref(new window)

Belheine, N., Plassiard, J.-P., Donze, F,-V., Darve, F. and Seridi, A. (2009), "Numerical simulation of drained triaxial test using 3D discrete element modeling", Comput. Geotech., 36(1-2), 320-331. crossref(new window)

Cubrinovski, M. and Ishihara, K. (2002), "Maximum and minimum void ratio characteristics of sands", Soil. Found., 42(6), 65-78. crossref(new window)

Cundall, P.A. (1971), "A computer model for simulating progressive, large scale movements in blocky rock systems", Proceedings of Symposium of International Society of Rock Mechanics, Nancy, France, September.

Cundall, P.A. and Strack, O.D.L. (1979), "A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies", Geotechnique, 29(1), 47-65. crossref(new window)

Dang, H.K. and Meguid, M.A. (2010), "Algorithm to generate a discrete element specimen with predefined properties", Int. J. Geomech., 10(2), 85-91. crossref(new window)

Ferreira, T. and Rasband, W. (2011), The Image J User Guide 1.44.

Hossain, Z., Indraratna, B., Darve, F. and Thakur, P.K. (2007), "DEM analysis of angular ballast breakage under cyclic loading", Geomech. Geoeng., 2(3), 175-181. crossref(new window)

Huang, H. and Tutumluer, E. (2011), "Discrete element modeling for fouled railroad ballast", Construct. Build. Mater., 25(8), 3306-3312. crossref(new window)

Indraratna, B. and Salim, W. (2005), Mechanics of Ballasted Rail Tracks-A Geotechnical Perspective, Taylor and Francis, London, UK.

Indraratna, B., Ionescu, D. and Christie, H.D. (1998), "Shear behaviour of railway ballast based on large scale triaxial testing", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 124(5), 439-449. crossref(new window)

Indraratna, B., Shahin, M., Rujikiatkamjorn, C. and Christie, D. (2004), "Stabilisation of ballasted rail tracks and underlying soft formation soils with geosynthetics grids and drains", Proceedings of GeoShanghai International Conference, Shanghai, China, June.

Indraratna, B., Khabbaz, H., Salim, W. and Christie, D. (2006), "Geotechnical properties of ballast and the role of geosynthetics in rail track stabilisation", Ground Improve., 10(3), 91-101. crossref(new window)

Indraratna, B., Ngo, N.T. and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2011a), "Behavior of geogrid-reinforced ballast under various levels of fouling", Geotext. Geomembr., 29(3), 313-322. crossref(new window)

Indraratna, B., Su, L. and Rujikiatkamjorn, C. (2011b), "A new parameter for classification and evaluation of railway ballast fouling", Can. Geotech. J., 48(2), 322-326. crossref(new window)

JGS (1998), Method for Triaxial Compression Test on Unsaturated Soils (JGS 0527), Japanese Geotechnical Society, Tokyo, Japan.

Jiang, M.J., Yan, H.B., Zhu, H.H. and Utili, S. (2011), "Modeling shear behavior and strain localization in cemented sands by two-dimensional distinct element method analyses", Comput. Geotech., 38(1), 14-29. crossref(new window)

JIS (2009), Test method for minimum and maximum densities of sands (JIS A 1224); Japanese Industrial Standards, Tokyo, Japan.

Kozicki, J. and Donze, F.V. (2008), "A new open-source software developed for numerical simulations using discrete modeling methods", Comput. Method. Appl. Mech. Eng., 197(49-50), 4429-4443. crossref(new window)

Kumara, G.H.A.J.J. (2013), "Development of prediction methods for deformation characteristics of fouled ballasts based on laboratory experiments and discrete element method", Ph.D. Dissertation; Yokohama National University, Yokohama, Japan.

Kumara, J. and Hayano, K. (2013), "Model tests on settlement behaviour of ballasts subjected to sand intrusion and tie tamping application", Proceedings of 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris, France, September.

Kumara, G.H.A.J.J., Hayano, K. and Ogiwara, K. (2012a), "Image analysis techniques on evaluation of particle size distribution of gravel", Int. J. GEOMATE, 3(1), 290-297.

Kumara, G.H.A.J.J., Hayano, K., Sasaki, K. and Shigekuni, Y. (2012b), "Evaluation of void ratio characteristics of sand-gravel mixtures with different PSD curves by 3D DEM simulations", Proceedings of 14th JSCE International Summer Symposium, Nagoya, Japan, September.

Kumara, J.J., Ogiwara, K., Hoshi, S. and Hayano, K. (2012c), "Evaluation on grain size distribution of railway ballast with and without sands by image analyses", Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on New Developments in Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Nicosia, Turkey, June.

Kumara, J.J., Hayano, K. and Kikuchi, Y. (2015), "Study on settlement characteristics of fouled ballast for an effective maintenance method", Proceedings of International Conference on Geotechnical Engineering, Colombo, Sri Lanka, August.

Lackenby, J., Indraratna, B., McDowell, G. and Christie, D. (2007), "Effect of confining pressure on ballast degradation and deformation under cyclic triaxial loading", Geotechnique, 57(6), 527-536. crossref(new window)

Lade, P.V., Liggio, C.D. Jr. and Yamamuro, J.A. (1998), "Effects of non-plastic fines on minimum and maximum void ratios of sand", Geotech. Test. J., 21(4), 336-347. crossref(new window)

Lin, X. and Ng, T.T. (1997), "A three-dimensional discrete element model using arrays of ellipsoids", Geotechnique, 47(2), 319-329. crossref(new window)

Lobo-Guerrero, S. and Vallejo, L.V. (2006), "Discrete element method analysis of railtrack ballast degradation during cyclic loading", Granular Matter, 8(3-4), 195-204. crossref(new window)

Marschi, N.D., Chan, C.K. and Seed, H.B. (1972), "Evaluation of properties of rockfill materials", J. Soil Mech. Found. Div., 98(1), 95-114.

Masad, E., Olcott, D., White, T. and Tashman, L. (2001), "Correlation of fine aggregate imaging shape indices with asphalt mixture performance", Transportation Research Record: J. Transport. Res. Board, 1757, 148-156. crossref(new window)

McDowell, G., Li, H. and Lowndes, I. (2011), "The importance of particle shape in discrete-element modelling of particle flow in a chute", Geotech. Lett., 1(3), 59-64. crossref(new window)

Pen, L.M.L., Powrie, W., Zervos, A., Ahmed, S. and Aingaran, S. (2013), "Dependence of shape on particle size for a crushed rock railway ballast", Granular Matter, 15(6), 849-961. crossref(new window)

Profillidis, V.A. (2000), Railway Engineering, Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, UK.

Rothenburg, L. and Bathurst, R.J. (1992), "Micromechanical features of granular materials with planar elliptical particles", Geotechnique, 42(1), 79-95. crossref(new window)

Rujikiatkamjorn, C., Indraratna, B., Ngo, N.T. and Coop, M. (2012), "A laboratory study of railway ballast behaviour under various fouling degree", Proceedings of 5th Asian Regional Conference on Geosynthetics, Bangkok, Thailand, December.

Salot, C., Gotteland, P. and Villard, P. (2009), "Influence of relative density on granular materials behavior: DEM simulations of triaxial tests", Granular Matter, 11(4), 221-236. crossref(new window)

Scholtes, L., Chareyre, B., Nicot, F. and Darve, F. (2009), "Micromechanics of granular materials with capillary effects", Int. J. Eng. Sci., 47(1), 64-75. crossref(new window)

Selig, E.T. (1985), "Ballast for heavy duty track", Proceedings of Track Technology Conference, Nottingham, UK, July.

Selig, E.T. and Waters, J.M. (1994), Track Geotechnology and Substructure Management, Thomas Telford, London, UK.

Sevil, A. and Ge, L. (2012), "Cyclic behaviors of railroad ballast within the parallel gradation scaling framework", J. Mater. Civil Eng., 24(7), 797-804. crossref(new window)

Smilauer, V., Catalano, E., Chareyre, B., Dorofeenko, S., Duriez, J., Gladky, A., Kozicki, J., Modenese, C., Scholtes, L., Sibille, L., Stransky, J. and Thoeni, K. (2010), Yade Reference Documentation; Yade Documentation (V. Smilauer Ed.), The Yade Project (1st Ed.). (

Szarf, K., Combe, G. and Villard, P. (2011), "Polygons vs. clumps of discs: A numerical study of the influence of grain shape on the mechanical behaviour of granular materials", Powder Technol., 208(2), 279-288. crossref(new window)

Thakur, P.K., Vinod, J.S. and Indraratna, B. (2010), "Effect of particle breakage on cyclic densification of ballast: a DEM approach", Proceedings of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Sydney, Australia, July.

Thakur, P.K., Vinod, B. and Indraratna, B. (2012), "Effect of confining pressure and frequency on the deformation of ballast", Geotechnique, 63(9), 786-790.

Vallerga, B.A., Seed, H.B., Monismith, C.L. and Cooper, R.S. (1957), "Effect of shape, size and surface roughness of aggregate particles on the strength of granular materials", ASTM Special Technical Publication, 212, 63-74.

Widlinski, L., Kozicki, J. and Tejchman, J. (2009), "Numerical simulations of triaxial test with sand using DEM", Arch. Hydro-Eng. Environ. Eng., 56(3-4), 149-171.