Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Assessment of the effect of sulfate attack on cement stabilized montmorillonite
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Geomechanics and Engineering
  • Volume 10, Issue 6,  2016, pp.807-826
  • Publisher : Techno-Press
  • DOI : 10.12989/gae.2016.10.6.807
 Title & Authors
Assessment of the effect of sulfate attack on cement stabilized montmorillonite
Kalipcilar, Irem; Mardani-Aghabaglou, Ali; Sezer, Gozde Inan; Altun, Selim; Sezer, Alper;
In this study, aiming to investigate the effects of sulfate attack on cement stabilized highly plastic clay; an experimental study was carried out considering the effects of cement type, sulfate type and its concentration, cement content and curing period. Unconfined compressive strength and chloride-ion penetration tests were performed to obtain strength and permeability characteristics of specimens cured under different conditions. Test results were evaluated along with microstructural investigations including SEM and EDS analyses. Results revealed that use of sulfate resistance cement instead of normal portland cement is more plausible for soils under the threat of sulfate attack. Besides, it was verified that sulfate concentration is responsible for strength loss and permeability increase in cement stabilized montmorillonite. Finally, empirical equations were proposed to estimate the unconfined compressive strength of cement stabilized montmorillonite, which was exposed to sulfate attack for 28 days.
montmorillonite;sulfate attack;cement stabilization;unconfined compressive strength;chloride-ion penetration;
 Cited by
AlZubaidi, M.R., AlRawi, K.H. and AlFalahi, A.J. (2013), "Using cement dust to reduce swelling of expansive soil", Geomech. Eng., Int. J., 5(6), 565-574. crossref(new window)

Chew, S.H., Kamruzzaman, A.H.M. and Lee, F.H. (2004), "Physicochemical and engineering behavior of cement treated clays", ASCE J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 130(7), 696-706. crossref(new window)

Chittoori, B.S. and Puppala, A.J. (2011), "Quantitative estimation of clay mineralogy in fine-grained soils", ASCE J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 137(11), 997-1008. crossref(new window)

Chittoori, B.C.S., Puppala, A.J., Wejrungsikul, T. and Hoyos, L.R. (2013), "Experimental studies on stabilized clays at various leaching cycles", ASCE J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 139(10), 1665-1675. crossref(new window)

Chrysochoou, M., Grubb, D. and Malasavage, N. (2012), "Assessment of sulfate-induced swell in stabilized dredged material: Is ettringite always a problem?", J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 138(3), 407-414. crossref(new window)

Cokca, E. (2001), "Use of class C fly ashes for the stabilization of an expansive soil", ASCE J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 127(7), 568-573. crossref(new window)

Du, Y.J., Jiang, N.J., Shen, S.L. and Jin, F. (2012), "Experimental investigation of influence of acid rain on leaching and hydraulic characteristics of cement based solidified/stabilized lead contaminated clay", J. Hazard. Mater., 225-226, 195-201. crossref(new window)

Du, Y.J., Jiang, N.J., Liu, S.Y., Jin, F., Singh, D.N. and Puppala, A.J. (2014), "Engineering properties and microstructural characteristics of cement-stabilized zinc-contaminated kaolin", Can. Geotech. J., 51(3), 289-302. crossref(new window)

Emidio, G. and Flores, R. (2012), "Monitoring the impact of sulfate attack on a cement-clay mix", GeoCongress, Oakland, CA, USA, March.

Havlica, J. and Sahu, S. (1992), "Mechanism of ettringite and monosulfate formation", Cement Concrete Res., 22(4), 671-677. crossref(new window)

Haykin, S. (2005), Neural Networks, A Comprehensive Foundation, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.

Hunter, D. (1988), "Lime-induced heave in sulfate-bearing clay soils", ASCE J. Geotech. Eng., 114(2), 150-167. crossref(new window)

Huntington, G.S. (1995), "Sulfate expansion in cement-treated bases", M.Sc. Thesis, University of Wyoming at Laramie, WY, USA.

Kamon, M. (1992), "Case studies of reinforced ground with micropiling and other improvement techniques", Proceedings of the Symposium on Prediction versus Performance in Geotechnical Engineering, Bangkok, Thailand, November-December.

Kamruzzaman, A.H.M. (2002), "Physico-chemical and engineering behavior of cement treated Singapore marine clay", Ph.D. Dissertation; National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Kezdi, A. (1979), Stabilized Earth Roads, Elsevier Scientific, Netherlands.

Klein, K. and Simon, D. (2006), "Effect of specimen composition on the strength development in cemented paste backfill", Can. Geotech. J., 43(3), 310-324. crossref(new window)

Kukko, H. (2000), "Stabilization of clay with inorganic by-products", ASCE J. Mater. Civil Eng., 12(4), 307-309. crossref(new window)

Lorenzo, G.A. and Bergado, D.T. (2006), "Fundamental characteristics of cement-admixed clay in deep mixing", J. Mater. Civil Eng., 18(2), 161-174. crossref(new window)

Ladd, C.C., Moh, Z.C. and Lambe, T.W. (1960), "Recent soil-lime research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology", Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting Highway Research Board 1960, Washington D.C., USA, January.

Lambe, T.W., Michaels, A.S. and Moh, Z.C. (1960), "Improvement of soil-cement with alkali metal compounds", Highway Res. Record, 241, 67-103.

Lee, S.L. and Yong, K.Y. (1991), "Grouting in substructure construction", Proceedings of the 9th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, Bangkok, Thailand, December.

Mardani-Aghabaglou, A., İnan Sezer, G. and Ramyar, K. (2014), "Comparison of fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin from mechanical properties, and durability performance of mortar mixtures view point", Construct. Build. Mater., 70, 17-25. crossref(new window)

Mehra, S.R., Chadda, L.R. and Kapur, R.N. (1955), "Role of detrimental salts in soil stabilization with and without cement. I. The effect of sodium sulphate", Indian Concrete J., 29(9), 336-337.

Murdock, L.J., Brook, K.M. and Dewar, J.D. (1991), Concrete Materials and Practice, (6th Edition), Oxford University Press, Canada.

O'Rourke, T.D., MacGinn, A.J., Dewsnap, J. and Stewart, H.E. (1998), "Case history of an excavation stabilized by deep mixing methods", ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication, 83, 41-63.

Petry, T.M. and Little, D.N. (1992), "Update on sulfate-induced heave in treated clays: Problematic sulfate levels", J. Transport. Res. Board, 1362, 51-55.

Puppala, A.J., Intharasombat, N. and Vempati, R. (2005), "Experimental studies on ettringite-induced heaving in soils", ASCE J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 31(3), 325-337.

Qiao, X.C., Poon, C.S. and Cheeseman, C.R. (2007), "Investigation into the stabilization/solidification performance of Portland cement through cement clinker phases", J. Hazard. Mater., 139 (2), 238-243 crossref(new window)

Ramon, A. and Alonso, E.E. (2013), "Analysis of ettringite attack to stabilized railway bases and embankments", Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, Paris, France, September.

Schaefer, V.R., Abramson, L.W., Drumheller, J.C. and Sharp, K.D. (1997), "Ground improvement, ground reinforcement and ground treatment: Developments 1987 to 1997", ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication.

Sherwood, P.T. (1958), "Effect of sulfates on cement-stabilized clay", Highway Res. Board Bull., 193, 45-54.

Sherwood, P.T. (1962), "Effect of sulfates on cement and lime-stabilized soils", Highway Res. Board Bull., 353, 98-107.

Shooshpasha, I. and Shirvani, R.A. (2015), "Effect of cement stabilization on geotechnical properties of sandy soils", Geomech. Eng., Int. J., 8(1), 17-31. crossref(new window)

Tang, Y., Liu, H. and Zhu, W. (2000), "Study on engineering properties of cement-stabilized soil", Chinese J. Geotech. Eng., 22, 549-554.

Tatsuoka, F., Uchida, K., Imai, K., Ouchi, T. and Kohata, Y. (1997), "Properties of cement treated soil in Trans-Tokyo Bay Highway Project", Ground Improve., 1(1), 37-57. crossref(new window)

Tosun, K. (2007), "The effects of different types of cements on delayed ettringite formation", Ph.D. Dissertation; Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey. [In Turkish]

Tosun, K. and Baradan, B. (2010), "Effect of ettringite morphology on DEF-related expansion", Cement Concrete Compos., 32(4), 271-280. crossref(new window)

Verastegui-Flores, R.D. and Di Emidio, G. (2014), "Impact of sulfate attack on mechanical properties and hydraulic conductivity of a cement-admixed clay", Appl. Clay Sci., 101,490-496. crossref(new window)

Voottipruex, P. and Jamsawang, P. (2014), "Characteristics of expansive soils improved with cement and fly ash in Northern Thailand", Geomech. Eng., Int. J., 6(5), 437-453. crossref(new window)

Wang, L. (2002), "Cementitious stabilization of soils in the presence of sulfate", Ph.D. Dissertation; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.

Wang, D., Abriak, N. and Zentar, R. (2013), "Strength and deformation properties of Dunkirk marine sediments solidified with cement, lime and fly ash", Eng. Geol., 166, 90-99. crossref(new window)

Wong, I.H. and Poh, T.Y. (2000), "Effects of jet grouting on adjacent ground and structures", ASCE J. Geotech. Geoviron. Eng., 126(3), 247-256. crossref(new window)

Zhang, T.W., Yue, X.B., Deng, Y.F., Zhang, D.W. and Liu, S.Y. (2014), "Mechanical behaviour and micro structure of cement-stabilised marine clay with a metakaolin agent", Construct. Build. Mater., 73, 51-57. crossref(new window)

Zhu, W., Zhang, C., Gao, Y. and Fan, Z. (2005), "Fundamental mechanical properties of solidified dredged marine sediment", J. Zhejiang Univ., 39(10), 1561-1565.