Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Desalting of tobacco extract using electrodialysis
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Membrane Water Treatment
  • Volume 7, Issue 4,  2016, pp.341-353
  • Publisher : Techno-Press
  • DOI : 10.12989/mwt.2016.7.4.341
 Title & Authors
Desalting of tobacco extract using electrodialysis
Ge, Shaolin; Li, Wei; Zhang, Zhao; Li, Chuanrun; Wang, Yaoming;
Papermaking reconstituted tobacco is an important strategy for recycling the waste tobacco residues. To indentify the influences of the inorganic components on harmful components delivery in cigarette smoke, a self-made electrodialysis stack was assembled to desalt the tobacco extract. The influences of the applied current and extract content on the removal rate of the inorganic ions were investigated. Results indicated that the applied current was a dominant impact on the desalination performance. High currents lower than the limiting current density could accelerate the desalting efficiency but cause higher energy consumption. A current of 2 A, or current density of , was an optimal choice by considering both the energy consumption and desalting efficiency. A 20% tobacco extract was an appropriate content for the electrodialysis process. More than 90% of inorganic ions could be removed under the optimum condition. The preliminary result indicated that removal of inorganic components was beneficial to decrease the harmful component delivery in cigarette smoke. Naturally, ED is an environmentally friendly and high-effective technology for desalting the tobacco extract.
reconstituted tobacco;tobacco extract;electrodialysis;ion exchange membranes;
 Cited by
Aghajanyan, A.E., Tsaturyan, A.O., Hambardzumyan, A.A. and Saghyan, A.S. (2013), "Obtaining the zwitterionic form of L-lysine from L-lysine monohydrochloride by electrodialysis", Membr. Water Treat., Int. J., 4(1), 1-9. crossref(new window)

Ali, M.B.S. and Hamrouni, B. (2016), "Development of a predictive model of the limiting current density of an electrodialysis process using response surface methodology", Membr. Water Treat., Int. J., 7(2), 127-141. crossref(new window)

Baker, R.R., da Silva, J.R.P. and Smith, G. (2004), "The effect of tobacco ingredients on smoke chemistry. Part I:Flavourings and additives", Food Chem. Toxicol., 42(S), 3-37. crossref(new window)

BAT Technical Memorandum, 79-09-063, 18.9.79.

Burley stem washing (2004), November 04. Philip Morris. URL:

Burley Stem Washing, URL:

Chen, M.S., Xu, L., Tian, H.L., Yin, C.Y., Zhou, Z.L., Li, Y., Ma, J.G. and Zhong, F. (2014), "Effects of common ammonium salt on the thermal behavior of reconstituted tobacco sheet", J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 118(3), 1747-1753. crossref(new window)

Denitration of Venezuelan Burley Stem Part II: The Effect on Smoke Deliveries. URL:

Flischer, S., Spiegehalder, B. and Pressumann, R. (1989), "Performed tobacco-specific nitrosamines in tobacco-role of nitrate and influence of tobacco type", Carcinogenesis, 10(8), 1511-1517. crossref(new window)

Gaisch, H., Krasna, B. and Schulthess, D. (1986), "Continuous method of denitrating tobacco extracts", US Patent 4622982.

Huang, C.H. and Xu, T.W. (2008), "Electrodialysis-based separation technologies: acritical review", AICHE J., 54(12), 3147-3159. crossref(new window)

ISO 4387 (1991), Cigarettes-determination of total and nicotine free dry particulate matter using a routine analytical smoking machine; Reference number ISO 4378:1991 (E), International Organization for Standardization: Geneva, Switzerland.

Jeanneret, C. and Morris, P. (1981), "Legislation 800124800224". URL:

Johnson, M.D., Schilz, J., Djordjevic, M.V., Rice, J.R. and Shields, P.G. (2009), "Evaluation of in vitro assays for assessing the toxicity of cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco", Cancer. Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 18(12), 3263-3304. crossref(new window)

Krol, J.J., Wessling, M. and Strathmann, H. (1999), "Concentration polarization with monopolar ion exchange membranes: current-voltage curves and water dissociation", J. Membr. Sci., 162(1-2), 145-154. crossref(new window)

Lee, H.J., Strathmann, H. and Moon, S.H. (2006), "Determination of the limiting current density in electrodialysis desalination as an empirical function of linear velocity", Desalination, 190(1-3), 43-50. crossref(new window)

Majewska-Nowak, K.M. (2013), "Treatment of organic dye solutions by electrodialysis", Membr. Water Treat., Int. J., 4(3), 203-214. crossref(new window)

Mattina, C.F. and Selke, A.S. (1973), "Method of making reconstituted tobacco having reduced nitrates", US Patent 3847164.

Muller, A.L.H., Bizzi, C.A., Pereira, J.S.F., Mesko, M.F., Moraes, D.P., Flores, E.M.M. and Muller, E.I. (2011), "Bromine and chlorine determination in cigarette tobacco using microwave-induced combustionand inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry", J. Braz. Chem. Soc., 22(9), 1649-1655.

Narkowicz, S., Polkowska, Z., Kielbratowska, B. and Namiesnik, J. (2013), "Environmental tobaccosmoke: Exposure, health effects, and analysis", Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol., 43(2), 121-161. crossref(new window)

Nunes-Alves, A., Nery, A.A. and Ulrich, H. (2013), "Tobacco nitrosamine N-nitrosonornicotine as inhibitor of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors", J. Mol. Neurosci., 49, 52-61. crossref(new window)

Paine III, J.B., Pithawalla, Y.B. and Naworal, J.D. (2008), "Carbohydrate pyrolysis mechanisms from isotopic labeling: Part 3. The Pyrolysis of d-glucose: Formation of C3 and C4 carbonyl compounds and a cyclopentenedione isomer by electrocyclic fragmentation mechanisms", J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol., 82(1), 42-69. crossref(new window)

Seeman, J.L., Dixon, M. and Haussmann, H.J. (2002), "Acetaldehyde in mainstream tobacco smoke: formation and occurrence in smoke and bioavailability in the smoker", Chem. Res. Toxicol., 15(11), 1331-1350. crossref(new window)

Seyler, T.H., Kim, J.G., Hodgson, J.A., Cowan, E.A., Blount, B.C. and Wang, L. (2013), "Quantitation ofurinary volatile nitrosamines from exposure to tobacco smoke", J. Anal. Toxicol., 37(4), 195-202. crossref(new window)

Strathmann, H. (2011), "Membrane separation process: Current relevance and future opportunities", AICHE J., 47(5), 1077-1087.

Stedman, R.L. (1968), "The chemical composition of tobacco and tobacco smoke", Chem. Rev., 68(2), 53-207.

Tanaka, Y., Uchino, H. and Murakami, M. (2012), "Continuous ion-exchange membrane electrodialysis of mother liquid discharged from a salt-manufacturing plant and transport of $Cl^-$ ions and $SO_4^{2-}$ ions", Membr.Water Treat., Int. J., 3(1), 63-76. crossref(new window)

Uhl (1977), RG RL Denitration separete burley processing. URL: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edutid/kzm02a00/pdf

Verma, M.S., Lakshmanan, C.C. and Chaudhury, A.S. (2009), "A process for the manufacture of reconstituted tobacco sheet", Indian Patent 194046.

Wang, W.S., Wang, Y. and Yang, L.J. (2005), "Studies on thermal behavior of reconstituted tobacco sheet", Thermochim. Acta, 437(1-2), 7-11. crossref(new window)

Xu, T.W., Fu, R.Q., Yang, W.H. and Xue, Y.H. (2006), "Fundamental studies on a novel series of bipolar membranes prepared from poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) - II. Effect of functional group type of anion-exchange layers on I-V curves of bipolar membranes", J. Membr. Sci., 279(1-2), 282-290. crossref(new window)

Zarrelli, A., DellaGreca, M., Parolisi, A., Lesce, M.R., Cermola, F., Temussi, F., Isidori, M., Lavorgna, M., Passananti, M. and Previtera, L. (2012), "Chemical fate and genotoxic risk associated with hypochloritetreatment of nicotine", Sci. Total Environ., 426(1), 132-138. crossref(new window)

Zhang, Z.H., Ge, S.L., Jiang, C.X., Zhao, Y. and Wang, Y.M. (2004), "Improving the smoking quality of papermaking tobacco sheetextract by using electrodialysis", Membr. Water. Treat., Int. J., 5(1), 31-40.

Zhou, S., Wang, C., Xu, Y. and Hu, Y. (2011), "The pyrolysis of cigarette paperunder the conditions that simulate cigarette smouldering andpuffing", J. Therm. Anal. Calorim., 104(3), 1097-1106. crossref(new window)

Zhou, S., Ning, M., Zhang, Y.P., He, Q., Wang, X.F., Zhu, D.L., Guo, S., Hong, N.N. and Hu, Y. (2014), "Significant removal of harmful compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke using carbon nanotubes mixture prepared by catalytic pyrolysis", Adsorpt. Sci. Technol., 32(6), 453-464. crossref(new window)