Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Upgrading equivalent static method of seismic designs to performance-based procedure
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Earthquakes and Structures
  • Volume 10, Issue 4,  2016, pp.849-865
  • Publisher : Techno-Press
  • DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.4.849
 Title & Authors
Upgrading equivalent static method of seismic designs to performance-based procedure
Allahvirdizadeh, Reza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali;
Beside the invaluable advancements in constructing more secure buildings, the post-earthquake inspections have reported considerable damages. In other words, the modern buildings satisfactorily decrease fatalities but the monetary impacts still mostly remain an unsolved concern of the stakeholders, the insurance companies and society together. Therefore, the fundamental target of the researches shifted from current force-based seismic design regulations to the Performance-Based earthquake engineering (PBEE). At the moment, some probabilistic approaches, such as PEER framework have been developed to predict the performance of building at any desired hazard levels. These procedures are so time-consuming, to which many details are needed to be assigned. It causes their usage to be limited. On that account, developing more straightforward methods seems indispensable. The main objective of the present paper is to adapt an equivalent static method in different damage states. Consequently, constant damage spectrums corresponding to different limit states, soil types, ductility and fundamental periods are plotted and tri-linear formulas are proposed for further applications. Moreover, the sensitivity of outcomes to the employed hysteresis model, ductility, viscous damping and site soil type is investigated. Finally, a case study building with moment-resisting R.C. frame is evaluated based on the both of new and current methods to ensure applicability of the proposed method.
performance-based seismic design;equivalent static analysis;damage index;constant damage spectrum;dynamic analysis;
 Cited by
Probabilistic comparative investigation on introduced performance-based seismic design and assessment criteria, Engineering Structures, 2017, 151, 206  crossref(new windwow)
Reliability evaluation of predicted structural performances using nonlinear static analysis, Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering, 2017, 15, 5, 2129  crossref(new windwow)
Aghagholizadeh, M. and Massumi, A. (2012), "Relation between dynamic characteristics and damage index of RC-MRFs using non-linear incremental dynamic analyses", The 15th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (15WCEE), Lisbon, Portugal.

Allahvirdizadeh, R., Khanmohammadi, M. and Marefat, M.S. (2013), "Investigating effects of scaling and selecting earthquake ground motions on performance-based design of R.C buildings", 4th International Conference on Concrete and Development, Tehran, Iran.

ASCE7-10 (2010), Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, Reston.

Behnam, B., Sebt, M.H. and Vosoughifar, H.M. (2006), "Evaluating quality seismic damage index for urban residential buildings", Int. J. Civ. Eng., 4(2), 136-145.

Bommer, J.J. and Pinho, R. (2006), "Adapting earthquake actions in Eurocode 8 for performance-based seismic design", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 35(1), 39-55. crossref(new window)

Calvi, G.M., Pinho, R., and Crowley, H. (2006), "State-of-the-knowledge on the period elongation of RC buildings during strong ground shaking", First European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology, Geneva, Switzerland.

Chao, S.-H., Goel, S.C. and Lee, S.-S. (2007), "A seismic design lateral force distribution based on inelastic state of structures", Earthq. Spectra, 23(3), 547-569. crossref(new window)

Cornell, C.A. and Krawinkler, H. (2000), Progress and challenges in seismic performance assessment, PEER Center News 2000, 3, 1-3.

Dhakal, R.P. (2011), Structural Design for Earthquake Resistance: Past, Present and Future, Report for Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission: Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Erduran, E. and Yakut, A. (2004), "Drift based damage functions for reinforced concrete columns", Comput. Struct., 82(2), 121-130. crossref(new window)

Estekanchi, H. and Arjomandi, K. (2007), "Comparison of damage indexes in nonlinear time history analysis of steel moment frames", Asian J. Civ. Eng. (Building and Housing), 8(6), 629-646.

Fajfar, P. (1992), "Equivalent ductility factors, taking into account low-cycle fatigue", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 21(10), 837-848. crossref(new window)

FEMA-356 (2000), Prestandard and commentary for the seismic rehabilitation of buildings, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington D.C., USA.

Ghobarah, A. (2004), "On drift limits associated with different damage levels", Proceedings of an International Workshop on Performance-based Seismic Design Concepts and Implementation, Bled, Slovenia.

Habibi, A.R. and Izadpanah, M. (2012), "Drift based damage functions for reinforced concrete moment resisting frames", J. Seismol. Earthq. Eng., 14(2), 117-129.

ISIRI2800 (2005), Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, 3rd version, Tehran, Iran. (in Persian)

Jiang, H., Fu, B. and Chen, L. (2013), "Damage-control seismic design of moment-resisting RC frame buildings", J. Asian Architect. Build. Eng., 12(1), 49-56. crossref(new window)

Jiang, H., Lu, X., Fu, B. and Chen, L. (2012), "Constant-damage yield strength spectra", Proceedings of the 15th World Conference of Earthquake Engineering (15WCEE), Lisbon, Portugal.

Kamaris, G.S., Vallianatou, Y. and Beskos, D.E. (2012), "Seismic damage estimation of in-plane regular steel moment resisting and x-braced frames", Bull. Earthq. Eng., 10(6), 1745-1766. crossref(new window)

Lu, Y., Gu, X. and Wei, J. (2009), "Prediction of seismic drifts in multi-storey frames with a new storey capacity factor", Eng. Struct., 31(2), 345-357. crossref(new window)

Mikami, T. and Iemura, H. (2001), "Demand spectra of yield strength and ductility factor to satisfy the required seismic performance objectives", Proceedings of JSCE, Japan.

Moustafa, A. (2011), "Damage-based design earthquake loads for single-degree-of-freedom inelastic structures", J. Struct. Eng., 137(3), 456-467. crossref(new window)

Naeim, F. (2004), "Impact of the 1994 Northridge earthquake on the art and practice of structural engineering", Struct. Des. Tall Spec. Build., 13(5), 373-389. crossref(new window)

Newmark, N.M. and Rosenblueth, E. (1971), Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Panyakapo, P. (2004), "Evaluation of site-dependent constant-damage design spectra for reinforced concrete structures", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 33(12), 1211-1231. crossref(new window)

Park, Y.-J. and Ang, A.H.S. (1985), "Mechanistic seismic damage model for reinforced concrete", J. Struct. Eng., 111(4), 722-739. crossref(new window)

PEER. (2006), PEER NGA Database, Available at

Priestley, M.J.N., Calvi, G.M. and Kowalsky, M.J. (2007), Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Structures, IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.

Seifried, A.E. (2013), "Response spectrum compatibilization and its impact on structural response assessment", Ph.D. thesis, Stanford University, California.

Seismosoft. (2013), SeismoMatch v 2.1. Available at

Sezen, H., Elwood, K.J., Whittaker, A.S., Mosalam, K.M., Wallace, J.W. and Stanton, J.F. (2000), Structural engineering reconnaissance of the August 17, 1999 earthquake: Kocaeli (Izmit), Turkey: Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER), California.

Takeda, T., Sozen, M.A. and Nielsen, N.N. (1970), "Reinforced concrete response to simulated earthquakes", J. Struct. Div., 96(12), 2557-2573.

UBC-97 (1997), Uniform Building Code, Whittier, California.

Wang, M.-L. and Shah, S.P. (1987), "Reinforced concrete hysteresis model based on the damage concept", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 15(8), 993-1003. crossref(new window)

Xue, Q. (2000), "Need of performance-based earthquake engineering in Taiwan: a lesson from the Chichi earthquake", Earthq. Eng. Struct. Dyn., 29(11), 1609-1627. crossref(new window)