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Site effects and associated structural damage analysis in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
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  • Journal title : Earthquakes and Structures
  • Volume 10, Issue 5,  2016, pp.1013-1032
  • Publisher : Techno-Press
  • DOI : 10.12989/eas.2016.10.5.1013
 Title & Authors
Site effects and associated structural damage analysis in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
Gautam, Dipendra; Forte, Giovanni; Rodrigues, Hugo;
Several historical earthquakes demonstrated that local amplification and soil nonlinearity are responsible for the uneven damage pattern of the structures and lifelines. On April 2015 the Mw7.8 Gorkha earthquake stroke Nepal and neighboring countries, and caused extensive damages throughout Kathmandu valley. In this paper, comparative studies between equivalent-linear and nonlinear seismic site response analyses in five affected strategic locations are performed in order to relate the soil behavior with the observed structural damage. The acceleration response spectra and soil amplification are compared in both approaches and found that the nonlinear analysis better represented the observed damage scenario. Higher values of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and higher spectral acceleration have characterized the intense damage in three study sites and the lower values have also shown agreement with less to insignificant damages in the other two sites. In equivalent linear analysis PGA varies between 0.29 to 0.47 g, meanwhile in case of nonlinear analysis it ranges from 0.17 to 0.46 g. It is verified from both analyses that the PGA map provided by the USGS for the southern part of Kathmandu valley is not properly representative, in contrary of the northern part. Similarly, the peak spectral amplification in case of equivalent linear analysis is estimated to be varying between 2.3 to 3.8, however in case of nonlinear analysis, the variation is observed in between 8.9 to 18.2. Both the equivalent linear and nonlinear analysis have depicted the soil fundamental period as 0.4 and 0.5 sec for the studied locations and subsequent analysis for seismic demands are correlated.
site response analysis;structural damage;EERA;NERA;seismic demand;Gorkha Earthquake;Kathmandu valley;
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Unearthed lessons of 25 April 2015 Gorkha earthquake (MW 7.8): geotechnical earthquake engineering perspectives, Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 2017, 8, 2, 1358  crossref(new windwow)
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